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The History of Herodotus. By Herodotus. Translated by Isaac Littlebury. The 3rd edition. London, 1737.




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The History of Herodotus. Volume 1. 

  • …the Massagetes [Μασσαγέτας  in original Greek. This word is comprised of two words: Massagetes → Massa + Getes, where Massa is a geographical name, and Gete  with its variation Ket↔Ked  means ‘ strong, selected’ in Turkic , thus ‘a nation of the strong, selected people from the land of Massa‘. The land of Massa was mentioned in a rock inscription Jebel Ghunaym, dated 6c. BC. The same principle applies to other Getes family: Thyssagetes → Thyssa + Getes, meaning ‘ Getes of Thyssa“, or ‘ the selected ones from Thyssa‘; Tyragetes → Tyra + Getes, meaning ‘Getes of Tyre‘, or ‘the selected ones from Tyre‘. Thyssa, or Thyssus was the name of the ancient town of Chalcidice in Macedonia, according to A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography by W.Smith,London, 1873; while Tyre was the name of the city in Phoenicia, mentioned by Herodotus  – Ed.], who are accounted a great and valiant people. They inhabit towards the East, and the rising sun beyond the River Araxes, over against the Issedonians; and some say they are Scythians.
  • The Massagetes resemble the Scythians in their habit and way of living: they have both horse and foot in their armies: their weapons of war are arrows, javelins, and scimitars: about their arms they use brass or gold; for the blade of their scimitar is brass, and their javelins and arrows are pointed with the same metal; but their helmets, belts, and body armour are adorn’d with gold. They arm their horses with a breastplate of brass, and the bridle, with all the rest of the furniture is enrich’d with gold. They use no silver nor Iron, for neither of those metals are found in their country. As for their manners, every one marries a wife’; but they lie with those women in common; and the Grecians mistake, when they attribute this custom to the Scythians which is peculiar to the Massagetes; among whom, whenever a man desires to have the company of a woman, he hangs up his quiver at the head of his chariot, and uses her without shame. The years of life are not limited by any law: but after a man has attain’d to old age, all his relations meet, and sacrifice him, with cattle of several kinds; and when they have boil’d all the flesh together, they sit down as to a feast. This death they account the most happy; for they never eat the bodies of those who die bv sickness; but bury them in the earth, and think it a great misfortune, that they did not attain to be sacrific’d. Their drink is milk; and they sow nothing, contenting themselves with the flesh of animals, and fish, which the river Araxes yields in abundance. They adore the Sun only of all the Gods, and sacrifice horses to his deity…
  • But before he reach’d the Ister, he subdued the Getes, who think themselves immortal. For the Thracians of Salmydessus, together with the Cyrmians and Mypsæans, who inhabit above the cities of Apollonia and Mesambria, submitted to Darius without resistance. But the Getes oppos’d him thro’ ignorance; and tho’ they are the most valiant and honest of all the Thracians, were easily conquer’d, and reduc’d to servitude. [The Turkic origin of the name of Getas ↔ Γέτας is evident, as Gete  with its variation Ket↔Ked  means ‘ strong, selected’, thus ‘a nation of the strong, selected people’. Herodotus also mentions other ancient nations, with the names containing Getes, such as Massagetes, Tyragetes, Tyssagetes – noted by Ed.]…They imagine that the man who ceases to live, is not dead, but goes to Zamolxis [In original Greek, it is Salmoxin ↔ Σάλμοξιν. It is possible that the name of ancient city Salmas, located in the Southern Azerbaijan is derived from the name of this deity of Getas.- Ed.], accounted by some among them to be the same with Gebelizis [Compare Gebeleisin ↔ Γεβελέιζιν to the name of ancient Azerbaijani city of Gebele ↔ Qəbələ, that emerged as a city in the late 4th-early 3rd c. BC and survived up until nowadays under the same name – noted by Ed.]. Every fifth year they elect a person by lot, and send him to Zamolxis with orders to let him know what they want. This messenger they dispatch thus. Certain persons are appointed to hold three javelins erected ; whilst others taking the man they are to send, by the hands and feet, throw him up into the air ; that he may sall down upon the points. If he dyes in their presence, they think the God propitious; if not, they load him with reproaches, and affirming he is an ill man, send another, whom they furnish with instructions while he is yet alive. These Thracians, in time of thunder and lightning, let fly their arrows against the heavens, and threaten their God ; whom they think the only deity.
  • Next to which, and a little deflecting to the eastward, the Tyssagetes inhabit; who are a separate people, very numerous, and living upon the venison they take. [Here the word Tyssagetes ↔ Θυσσαγέται proceeds from two words: Thyssagetes → Thyssa + Getes→ Ket  ‘strong’, meaning ‘ Getes of Thyssa“, or ‘ the selected ones from Thyssa . – noted by Ed.]
  • The power of Deioces extended not beyond the whole nation of the Medes, which consists of the Busians [ Βοῦσαι in Greek. – Ed.]Paratacenians [Παρητακηνοὶ in Greek, this nation’s name most likely is based on a combination of two Turkic words : Paratacenians /Paretakenoi → Para ‘ money’ + Taken→ Tekin/Tegin ‘prince’,  ‘rich prince’ in Turkic, as a Turkic name Kultegin → Kul ‘ a slave’ + Tegin ‘prince’ in old Turkic stela, erected in honor of a brave Turkic prince Kultegin in the VII c. The name of an Azerbaijan town Parakend/ Parakənd → Para + Kend/Kənd ‘ rich village’ in Turkic can be considered as a partial imprint of this ancient nation. -Ed.] , Struchates [Στρούχατες – Ed.]Arizantins [Ἀριζαντοὶ – Ed.], Budians [Βούδιοι – Ed.], and the Mages [Μάγοι in Greek, is most likely of Turkic origin. It means ‘glory, fame’. The name of this nation is easily traced in the toponyms, located mostly in modern Azerbaijan Republic, that  used to be Media in ancient times, i.e. Magayny → Mag + Ayny/Oyny ‘ game, trick’, meaning ‘trick of Mags‘ in Turkic;  Maghavus/ Maghavouz/Magavuz → Mag + havus/hovuz ‘pond’, meaning ‘ pond of Mags‘ in TurkicMagdere→ Mag/Maq+ Dere/ Dərə ‘ valley’ in Turkic, meaning ‘ valley of Mags‘; Magydere ↔ Mağıdərə (Migidere/Mığıdərə: Mugudere/ Muqudərə) → Magy/Mağı/Mığı + Dere/Dərə ‘a glorious valley’; Magi Qurgan ↔ Mağı Qurğan, meaning ‘a glorious kurgan’. Magi Qurgan as a settlement was mentioned in a stone stella, named Kultegin inscription, which was written in old Turkic language and erected to honor a Turkic prince Kultegin in the VII c. There are also phonetic variations of the name Mag – it is Mug/Mog, that is the part of a numerous names of big and small cities and towns in present day Azerbaijan – Mugan/Muğan, Mugan-Gengeli / Muğan-Genceli; Muganciq Mehrab; Muganli/Muğanlı;  as well as Mugan plain. The Mog variation is met in the names of the towns and settlements of Iran, such as Moganen, Mogandek, Bemmogan, Siaz- Mogan, Mogriz; Mogestan desert. – Ed.].
  • The Budians [This word Βουδῖνοι in Greek came from the Turkic Budun, meaning ‘people, nation’ and frequently mentioned in the old written Turkic inscriptions, etched in stones in the VIII c. – Ed.] are a great and populous nation, with eyes very blue, and red hair. They have a city called by the name of Gelonus; built with timber, and surrounded by a high wall of the same materials; each side of which is three hundred stades in length. The buildings, as well sacred as private, are of timber likewise. And they have temples dedicated to the gods of Greece, adorn’d after the Grecian manner with images, altars, and chapels of wood. They celebrate the triennial festivals of Bacchus, and perform the Bacchanalian ceremonies.
  • Astyages [Ἀστυάγης – Ed.], the son of Cyaxares [Κυαξάρεω – Ed.], succeeding him in the kingdom, had a daughter nam’d Mandane [Μανδάνην – Ed.]; and having dreamt she made so great a quantity of water, as not only fill’d his capital city, but overflow’d all Asia, he consulted the interpreters of dreams among the Mages; and by their explanation was cast into such a dread of the event, that seeing his daughter of sufficient age, he resolv’d not to marry her to a Mede, worthy of her bed; but chose a Persian for her husband, nam’d Cambyses, descended of a good family, of a peaceful disposition, and one he thought inferior to a Mede even of moderate condition. Within the space of a year after he had married Mandane to Cambyses, he had another dream; in which he seem’d to see a vine shooting from the bowels of his daughter, and extending its branches over all Asia. This he also communicated to the interpreters, and having heard their answer, sent to Persia for his daughter, who was then big with child [ future king of Persia – Cyrus  – noted by Ed ]; and upon her arrival put her under a guard, resolving to destroy whatever should be born of her.
  • The Medes were in the old time called by everybody Arians, but when Medea, the Colchian, came from Athens to the country of the Arians, they too changed their name ( to Medes. Medea was Jason’s jealous wife, the tragic heroine of Euripides’ Medea.) That is the story the Medes tell of themselves.
  • Next adjoining to these, are the Henetes, who dwell in Adria, and say they are a colony of the Medes. But by what means that colony came thither, I cannot affirm, tho’ nothing be impossible to happen in length of time.
  • The Medes  [ Μῆδοι – noted by Ed.] were arm’d and cloth’d in the same manner for the furniture I have describ’d, belongs properly to the Medes and not to the Persians. They march’d under the conduct of Tigranes, who was of the Achæmenian family. The Medes were anciently called Arians by all nations but chang’d their name, as they say themselves, when Medea of Colchis [ Μηδείης τῆς Κολχίδος – noted by Ed.] arriv’d from Athens in their country.
Median v Persian

The old national dress of the Persians, consisting of a close-fitting tunic and leather trousers on the right, versus the Median flowing robe, concealing the form and giving it the appearance of grandeur and elegance on the left. From ” The History of Herodotus: A new english version…” By George Rawlinson. London, 1858. (Click on the image to zoom in.)

  • Cyrus [The name of Persian king Cyrus, who was half-Mede and half-Persian is of Turkic origin. Cyrus ↔ Κύρου ↔ Kuros → Kür  ‘ bold, audacious, fearless’ – noted by Ed.]... grew very desirous to conquer the Massagetes, who are accounted a great and valiant people. …but at length the Massagetes had the victory, most of the Persian army being cut in pieces, and Cyrus himself kill’d in the place, after he had reign’d twenty nine years. Tomyris [ a queen of the Massagetes – noted by Ed.] found the body of Cyrus, among the slain; and having cut off the head, threw it into a vessel fill’d with human blood, which she had purposely prepared; saying, in an insulting manner: ” Thou didst, indeed, treacherously surprize and destroy my son; but I, who survive, and am thy conqueror, will now  make good my word, and give thee blood  enough.” Such was the end of Cyrus
  • The customs of the Lydians differ little from those of the Grecians…They were the first of all the nations we know, who introduc’d the art of coining gold and silver to facilitate trade, and first practis’d the way of retailing merchandize. They pretend to be the inventors of divers games, which are now common to them with the Grecians. And, as they say, were found out about the time they sent a colony to Tyrrhenian [ The Turkic word Tyrrhenian , or Turanian, have the same Turkic root – Tur ↔ Turk – noted by Ed.] on this occasion. During the reign of Atys, the son of Manes – king of Lydia, a scarcity of provisions spread over the kingdom, which the people for a time supported with patience and industry. But when they saw the evil still continuing, they applied themselves to find out a remedy; and some inventing one game, and others another, they gradually introduced dice, balls, tables, and all other plays, chess only excepted, of which the Lydians do not challenge the invention. And to bear this calamity better, they us’d to play one whole day without intermission, that they might not be disquieted with the thoughts of food; eating and drinking on the next day, without amusing themselves with any kind of game. After they had continued this alternate manner during eighteen years, and found their wants rather increasing than abating, the king divided the people into two parts, and order’d them to determine by lot, which division should relinquish the country and which should remain in possession; he himself designing to reign over those who should have the fortune to stay, and appointing his son Tyrrhenus to command that part which should be oblig’d to remove. Those who by lot were constrain’d to depart, march’d down to Smyrna, where having built a sufficient number of ships, and put all things necessary on board, they set sail in search of food, and of a new habitation; till having pass’d by many Nations, they arriv’d in Umbria, and built divers cities, which they inhabit to this day. There they chang’d their ancient name, and were no longer call’d Lydians but Tyrrhenians, from their leader Tyrrhenus, the son of their king.
  • Those who had been kings of this country before Argon, were descended from Lydus, the son of Atys, who gave his name to the whole nation, which before his time were call’d Meones. [Μηίων – noted by Ed.]
  • …among the Lydians, and almost all barbarous nations, ’tis a great dishonor even for a man to be seen naked.
  •  Ecbatana [In original Greek, it is is Agbatana -Ἀγβατάνων . This word is clearly of Turkic origin. There are numerous  names of the cities and settlements in the successor of Media – Republic of Azerbaijan, such as Lokbatan ↔ Lökbatan → Lök ‘ a baby camel’ + Batan ‘drowning,sinking’Djeyranbatan ↔ Ceyranbatan → Ceyran ‘a deer’ + Batan ‘drowning,sinking’.- Ed.] and the rest of Media, with the Paricanians [Παρικανίων – Ed.] and Orthocorybantes [Ὀρθοκορυβαντίων -Ed.], were the tenth, and paid a tribute of four hundred and fifty talents.
  • The Caspians [Κάσπιοι – Ed.]Pausics [Παυσίκαι – Ed.], Pantimatians [Παντίμαθοί – Ed.], and Darites [Δαρεῖται – Ed.], contributed two hundred talents, and compos’d the eleventh Satrapy.
  • The twelfth, which extended from the Bactrians [Βακτριανῶν -Ed.] to the Æglans [Αἰγλῶν -Ed.], brought in three hundred and sixty talents.
  • Ardyes [ Ἄρδυος , the son of Gyges – Γύγης. The name Ardyes ↔ Arduos in original Greek has the root Ard ↔ Art  ‘a mountain’ of Turkic origin. The Turkic name Arda is mentioned in a number of old Turkic manuscripts, according to Ancient Turkic Dictionary, published in 1969 in USSR – noted by Ed.] , his son and successor; who took the city of Priene, and invaded the territories of Miletus. In his time the Cimmerians, who had been dispossess’d of their own country by the Scythian nomads, pass’d into Asia, and possess’d themselves of Sardis, the fort only excepted. He reign’d forty nine years, and his son Sadyattes succeeded him, and reign’d twelve years. Alyattes succeeding Sadyattes, made war upon Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, king of the Medes. He expell’d the Cimmerians out of Asia – and having taken the city of Smyrna, founded by the Colophonians, he invaded the territories of the Clazomenians. [ Both names Sadyattes ↔ Σαδυάττης and Alyattes ↔ Ἀλυάττης derive their etymology from Turkic words : Sadyattes → Sad ↔ Šad  ‘ happy, jolly’  + Yat ‘1.be; 2.rest ‘, meaning ‘ be happy’ ; whereas, Alyattes → Al  ‘ crafty, cunning’ + Yat ‘ 1.be; 2.rest ‘ , meaning ‘ be crafty, smart’ – noted by Ed.]

  • What language the Pelasgians [Πελασγοί – noted by Ed] us’d I cannot certainly affirm; but is I may form a conjecture by that which at present is spoken among those Pelasgians, who being now settled at Crotona beyond the Tyrrhenians, were formerly neighbours to those call’d at this day Dorians [Δωριεῦσι – noted by Ed.], and dwelt in Thessaly when the Pelasgians founded Placia and Scylace on the Hellespont, and liv’d in society with the Athenians…the Pelasgians spoke a barbarous language. And …the people of Attica [Ἀττικὸν – noted by Ed.], who are descended from them, must have unlearnt their own mother tongue, after they took the name of Grecians[ In original Greek, it is Hellenic Ἕλληνας , not Grecians – noted by Ed.] 
  • … the Grecians… learnt of the Pelasgians to make the image of Hermes with an erected priapus, the Athenians having been the first, who practis’d this manner, and others by their example. For in that time, the Pelasgians inhabited part of the Athenian territories; and, because the Athenians were accounted among the nations of Greece, came likewise to be esteem’d Grecians. Whoever is initiated in the Cabirian mysteries of the Samothracians, which they receiv’d from the Pelasgians, knows what I say. For these Pelasgians were inhabitants of Samothracia, before they came into the country of Attica, and had instructed the Samothracians in the orgian rites…
  • …the Lacedemonians [ Λακεδαιμονίους – noted by Ed.] and Athenians were the principal nations of Greece, the first being of Dorian [Δωρικοῦ – noted by Ed.], and the other of Ionian [Ἰωνικοῦ – noted by Ed.] descent. They were in ancient time esteem’d the most considerable, when they went under the names of Pelasgians  [Πελασγικὸν – noted by Ed.] and Hellenians [Ἑλληνικὸν – noted by Ed.], of which the latter constantly continued in one country, while the former verry often changed their seat. For under the reign of Deucalion the Pelasgians inhabited the country of Pthiotis [Φθιῶτιν – noted by Ed.] and in the time of Dorus, the son of Hellenes possess’d that region which is call’d Istiœotis [Ἱστιαιῶτιν – noted by Ed.], lying at the foot of the mountains Ossa and Olympus. From thence being expell’d by the Cadmæans, they betook themselves to Macednum [Μακεδνὸν – noted by Ed.] on mount Pindus, which place they afterwards abandon’d for another settlement tn Dryopis [Δρυοπίδα – noted by Ed.], and again changing their country, came to inhabit in Peloponesus [Πελοπόννησον – noted by Ed.], where they were call’d Dorians.
  • The Hyrcanians‘ gear was the same as the Persians‘, and their commander was Megapanus, who was afterwards governor of Babylon[The word Hyrcanian is a Turkic word derived from the name of the ancient Azerbaijan region – Irgana, meaning ‘ a valley’. Hyrkania, which is called Shirvan nowadays, is located in Azerbaijan Republic – noted by Ed.]
  • The Iyrcians are contiguous to these; and possessing another part of the country, subsist also by hunting, in this manner. They climb the trees (which abound in all places) and wait for the game, attended by a dog, and a horse taught to lye down upon his belly to prevent discovery. When the hunter sees the beast from the tree, he lets fly an arrow, mounts his horse, and pursues the chace with his dog. [ The word Iyrcians ↔ Ἰύρκαι is another variation of the word Hyrcanians. – noted by Ed.]
  • The Sacae, who are Scythians, [Σάκαι δὲ οἱ Σκύθαι -noted by Ed.] have high caps tapering to a point and stiffly upright, which they wear on their heads. They wore trousers and carried native bows and daggers and, in addition, axes,which they called ‘safaris’. These were Amyrgian Scythians [Ἀμυργίους Σάκας – noted by Ed.] but were called Sacae [Σάκας – noted by Ed.], for the Persians call all Scythians Sacae.
  • However, the goddess to avenge this attempt, inflicted on those that robb’d her temple, and all their posterity, a distemper, in other places only common to women; and divers of these patients are seen by those who travel into Scythia, where they are call’d by the name of impious persons. [ A better translation is given by G.C Macaulay, /1890/: ” So these Scythians who had plundered the temple at Ascalon, and their descendants for ever, were smitten by  the divinity with a disease which made them women instead of men: and the Scythians say that it was for this reason that they were diseased, and that for this reason travellers who visit Scythia now, see among them the affection of those who by the Scythians are called Enareës.”, or Ἐνάρεας . This word has a combination of two Turkic words: Enareës → En  ‘low’ + Ar → Är  ‘a male, a man’, meaning ‘a degraded man’. – noted by Ed.]
  • …the Enarians and Androgynes [The correct translation is given by G.C.Macaulay here: “the Enareës or “man-women”, Ἐνάρεες in Greek – Ed.] pretend that Venus gave them the power of predicting by the bark of a lime-tree, which they split in three places ; and tearing the parts asunder with their fingers, pronounce the oracle. When the king of Scythia is sick, he sends for three of the most famous of these prophets…
  • The Bactrians Βάκτριοι -noted by Ed.] wore headgear likest to the Medes‘, and their native bows were made of reeds, and their spears were short….
  • The Arians [ Ἄρειοι – noted by Ed.]  had bows like those of the Medes, but otherwise their equipment was like the Bactrians.
  • The Parthians [ From Turkic Parti  ↔ Πάρθοι → Bardi → Varli ”wealthy‘, consisting of the root Par→Bar→Var ‘ wealth‘ + ti/di is an indicative affix –y, that converts the noun into an adjective: wealth→wealthy. – Ed.], Chorasmians, Sogdians [ The word Sogdians ↔ Σόγδοι is of Turkic origin, comprised of two words: Sogdian → Sogdaq→ Soğ  ‘cold’ + Daq  ‘mountain’, meaning ‘ people from cold mountain area’. Sogdians were mentioned as Sogdaq in a number of old Turkic inscriptions using old Turkic runic alphabet, etched on stone steles, which are still preserved nowadays, such as The Tonyukuk Memorial Complex (712 AD), Moyun-Chur Stela (759 AD.), and in the book by Mahmud al Kashgari Divanu Lugat-it-Turk ( XI c ). – noted by Ed], Gandarians, and Dadicae had the same gear as the Bactrians. They had the following commanders: of the Parthians and ChorasmiansArtabazus, son of Pharnaces; of Sogdians, Azanes, son of Artaeus; of Gandarians and the Dadicae, Artyphius, son of Artabanus. [ The names of the commanders start with Ar– , as in Artabazus, Artaeus, Artyphius. The word Ar → Ər means in all the Turkic languages ‘a man’, ‘a male’ – noted by Ed.]
  • The Sattagydae [ Σατταγύδαι → compare Turkic words Sat ‘sell’ + Tagyd→ Dagid ‘destroy,get rid of -noted by Ed.]’, Gandarii [Γανδάριοι → Turkic words Gan→ Gen ‘wide’ + Dari “skin’ , meaning fat people – noted by Ed.], Dadicae [Δαδίκαι – Ed.], and Aparytae [ Ἀπαρύται → Turkic words Apar ‘take’ +Yt → It ‘go away,disappear – noted by Ed.] paid, all together, 170 talents. This was the seventh province.
  • From the Bactrians [Βακτριανῶν -Ed.], as far as the Aegli [ Αἰγλῶν → compare to Turkic Agil ‘people, village’ – noted by Ed.], came a tribute of 360 talents.
  • The Caspii [ Κάσπιοι – noted by Ed], Pausicae [Παυσίκαι -Ed.], Pantimathi [Παντίμαθοί -Ed.], and Daritae [ Δαρεῖται → from Turkic words Dar → Tar ‘disperse’ +  It  ‘go away,disappear – noted by Ed.]  paid jointly 200 talents. This was the eleventh province.
  • Other Indians dwell near the town of Caspatyrus [ Compare Caspa → Caspii  + Tyrus → Tur/Turk , meaning ‘Caspian Turks‘ – noted by Ed.] and the Pactyic country, north of the rest of India; these live like the Bactrians
  • From the Sagartii Sarangeis ThamanaeiUtiiMyci, and those who live on the islands in the Red Sea, where the King establishes the men who are called “The Transplanted” – from all these came a tribute of 600 talents. This was the fourteenth province.   [The word Sagartii can be derived from Turkic words Sag ‘right; pure,true; smart’ + Art ‘mountain’, meaning ‘ true mountaineers’ ; Sarangeis ↔ Σαράγγαι – from the Turkic words Sari ‘yellow’ + Ang → Əng ‘cheek’, literally meaning ‘people with yellow cheeks’, or ‘yellow skin people’; Thamanaei –  from the Turkic word Taman →Tәmәn ‘big’, meaning ‘big people’. There are numerous Turkic names with this Turkic root ‘Taman’ – The Taman Peninsula, situated in the present-day Krasnodar Region of Russia, bordering  with the Sea of Azov in the north,  with the Strait of Kerch in the west and  with the Black Sea in the south; river Taman in ancient Uygur city of Kashgar, located in China, near the border with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The word ‘Taman‘ was also one of the titles of the Turkic khan – Bilge Kagan, according to the ancient Turkic marble stela of the VIII c., written in old Turkic language and alphabet. The name of the tribe Utii proceeds from a Turkic word  Ut  ‘win’, meaning ‘a nation of winners’. The word Myci  is originated from the Turkic word  Mük  ‘bend; cause to submit to one’s will’, meaning ‘a people, bending others to their will or power’ – noted  by Ed.]
  • The Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdi, and Arii were the sixteenth, paying three hundred. [Arii is the name of the Turkic tribe.The word Arii→Ar →Er→Ər  means ‘a man, a male, a human being’. – noted by Ed.]
  • …the MatieniSaspiri, and Alarodii were the eighteenth, and two hundred talents were the appointed tribute. [ Compare to the words of turkic origin: Matieni →  Mәtin  ‘humble’, meaning ‘ humble people’ ; Saspiri  ↔ Σάσπειρες → Sas →  Sәs  ‘a voice, sound’ +   Pir → Bir   ‘one’, meaning ‘ a people of one voice; a united people’; Alarodii ↔ Ἀλαρόδιοι →   Alar  ‘taking,conquering’ +   Od  ‘fire’ , meaning ‘a people, conquering with fire’ – noted by Ed.]
  • And on this account the Scythians put out the eyes of all the prisoners they take; never applying their care to husbandry; but only to the keeping of cattle.
  • The Scythians [Σκύθαι -Ed.] say their nation is of a later original than any other, and began in this manner. The first man that appear’d in Scythia, then an uninhabited desert, was Targitaus [Ταργιτάον – Ed.], concerning whom they relate things incredible to me. For they affirm that he was born of Jupiter [ In original Greek, it is Δία – Zeus -Ed.] and a daughter of the river Borysthenes [ The Dnieper – noted by Ed.]: that he had three sons who went by the names of LipoxaisApoxais, and Colaxais [Λιπόξαϊν, Ἀρπόξαϊν, Κολάξαιν – Ed.] .  That during their reign a plow, with a yoke, an axe, and a bowl, all of gold, fell down from heaven into Scythia.
  • They farther say, that the Auchatian Scythians [The word Auchatian↔ Αὐχάται consists of two Turkic words: Auch→ Ok ‘arrow’ +  At  ‘throw, shoot’ , meaning in Turkic ‘an archer’ – noted by Ed.] are descended from Lipoxais‘, the Catiarians [Κατίαροί is of Turkic origin, the word Catiarians consists of two words: Cat→Kat ‘strong’ + Iari →Yari support,help’, meaning ‘a strong supporter’ – noted by Ed.] and Traspians [ The word Traspians ↔ Τράσπιες has two Turkic components:  Terasap →Tera  ‘gathered’ + Sap  ‘unite’, meaning ‘ the one who gathered and united his people’ – noted by Ed.] from Apoxais ; and the race of their kings, which they call Paralates [Παραλάται – Ed.], from Colaxais, the third son of Targitaus. They give themselves the general name of Scolotes [Σκολότους in Greek, or Skolotous has undoubtedly Turkic origin and is composed of three Turkic words: Skolotous → Sk → Sıq  ‘ small’ + Ol  ‘become’ + Otus  ‘ thirty’, meaning ‘ from a small number grow thirty times bigger’ – noted by Ed.]; which is also the surname of their kings. But the Grecians call them Scythians [Σκύθας – Ed.]. This account they give of their origin; and reckon about a thousand years at most, from the reign of Targitaus the first king of Scythia, to the time they were invaded by Darius. The kings take all imaginable care to preserve the sacred gold, and annually assist at the magnificent sacrifices, which are offer’d to those holy instruments. If he who has the guard of these things on the Festival Day, happen to fall asleep in the open air, the Scythians say he cannot live long, and therefore make him a present of as much land as he can ride over on horseback in one day. Colaxais perceiving the country to be of vast extent, divided the kingdom between his three sons; and made that share most considerable, where the gold which fell from heaven, is kept.
  • But the Grecians who inhabit Pontus give a different account; and say, that as Hercules [Ἡρακλέα – Ed.] was driving away the cows of Geryon, he arriv’d in the country now possess’d by the Scythians; which was then an uninhabited desert; and that Geryon liv’d in an island by the Grecians call’d Erythia [Ἐρύθειαν – Ed.]…That Hercules in his return pass’d thro’ the country, which is now call’d Scythian and finding the weather cold and frosty, lay down to sleep wrapp’d in the lyon’s skin. That while he slept, the mares which drew his chariot, led by a divine hand, stray’d from the place where they fed; and that when he awak’d he sought them all over the country, and coming to a place call’d Hylœar [Ὑλαίην – Ed.] found a creature of an ambiguous nature. resembling a virgin from the thighs upwards, and shaped like a serpent in the lower parts. Astonished at the sight, he ask’d her if she had seen his mares. She told him they were in her power, but that she would not restore them, unless he would lie with her. To which he consented, in order to recover his mares. Nevertheless, she delay’d to perform her promise, out of a desire to enjoy the company of Hercules as long as she could; ’till finding him no less desirous to depart, she restor’d the mares, and spoke to him in these terms. “I preserved your mares when they stray’d hither, and you have given me the recompense of my care; for I have three sons by you. Tell me, therefore, how I shall dispose of them when they are grown up. Whether they shall continue to live in this country, where I am mistress, or whether I shall fend them to you?” To this question Hercules answer’d:” When you see the children arrived to the age of men, you cannot err, if you retain in these regions that son, who shall be found capable of drawing this bow and wearing this belt, and send away those who shall be of inferior force. If you do this, you will consult your own happiness, and perform my orders.” Then drawing out one of his bows (for he carried two at that time) and delivering it into her hands, with the belt, which had a golden cup hanging at the lowest seam, he took leave and went away. When her sons had attain’d to the age of men, she nam’d the eldest Agathyrsis [Ἀγάθυρσον in Greek, this name has the Turkic origin and like most Turkic names was construed from two words: Aga  “the elder brother’ + Thyrs  ‘powerful’, meaning ‘ a powerful elder brother’. The word Thyrs → Tures/Turas/Taurus → Tyre/Ture → Tur is the fundamental word, the essence of the Turkic nations that unifies them all under this name Tur. This word served as a main root, common to all the geographical, toponymic and human names, mentioned by Herodotus,such as the city Tyre, the river Tyres, the mountain Taurus, the name of the tribes – Tyragetes, Tyrites, Tyrian, CaspatyrusTauriansTeucriansTyrinthians; names of people – Agathyrsi, Idanthyrsus,Tyrrhenus, Tyres,Tyreus; name of the country Tyrrhenia, Thyrea,Teucria. The word Turk↔ Türk , which is a collective denominator of all Turkic nations – both long gone and currently existing, stems from the ancient word Tur ‘powerful, strong’. The word Turk is the plural word of the word Tur, such as Tur/Tür→Turuq/Türük  , meaning ‘we are Turs,or Turks; we are powerful”. Additional proof is served by the words TyrrhenianTuran, as here a signifier of plural attribute  -an  is added to the main root Tur, thus creating the words with the meaning ‘the Turs,or collective Turs/Turks“. In a number of old Turkic historical works in the form of erected stellas,such as The Tonyukuk’s Memorial Complex, etched in stone in the VIII c. and in ancient Turkic alphabet , the name of Turgesh tribe was mentioned: Turgesh → Tur ‘a Turk’ + Gesh → Kişi ‘a man’.  The same is observed with the Turkic word Ər ‘ a man’ → Ərən ‘men’ , which is reflected in “Divan Lugat at Turk” by Mahmud al Kashgari.  – Ed.], the second Gelonus [Γελωνόν ↔Yılan→ Ilan  ‘a serpent’ in the Turkic language. This is not surprising, taking into account the fact who his mother was: a half-female, half-serpent creature. – Ed.], and the youngest Scytha [Σκύθην in Greek, this word is comprised of two Turkic words – Sc→ Sıq  ‘small’ + Ytha →Uf → Üv → Ev  ‘ house, home’, meaning ‘the youngest in the house.’ This exact expression is still in use in a number of contemporary Turkic languages, such as in Azerbaijani : Evin kiçiyi ‘ the youngest in the house’,or  Evin böyükü ‘ the eldest in the house’ – Ed.]; and remembring the orders of Hercules, put them in execution, as he had enjoined; but finding two of her sons, Agathyrsis and Gelonus, unable to perform the things required, she sent them out of the country; retaining Scytha, her youngest son with her, because he had accomplish’d the will of his father. All the kings of Scythia have been the descendants of this Scytha, the son of Hercules; and from his time the Scythians have always carried a cup, fasten’d to the lower part of their belt.

  • But in Scythia one thing is observed more prudently contrived than in any other nation we know. For whoever enters their country, can never make his escape; neither are the Scythians ever to be found, unless they are willing; because they have no cities, nor inclosed places; but every man has a moveable house; and fights on horseback, arm’d with a bow and arrows. They have not their subsistence from the plow, but from the cattle, and use carts instead of houses. If these things were not so, they would be an easy conquest, and unable to make resistance. The situation of their country, which is level, and the frequency of their rivers, have greatly contributed to these advantages. For the soil is rich and well watered; and the rivers are almost as numerous as the canals of Egypt. Of these the most celebrated, and most navigable from the sea, are, the Ister, the Tyres [Τύρης – the same Turkic root Tyr can be observed in a number of other geographical names, mentioned by Herodotus, such as the river Tyres, Tyrian Europa, the Tyres as a nation, Tyrites, a TyrianTyrrhenians,etc. – noted by Ed.], the Hypanis, the Boryfthenes, the Panticapes, the Hypacyris, the Gerrhus and the Tanais.
  • The second is the Tyres [Tyras ↔ Τύρης – Ed.], which comes from the north, issuing out of a vast Lake, and separates Scythia from Nebris. At the mouth of this river certain Grecians inhabit, who, for that reason, are call’d Tyrites.[Tyritai↔Τυρῖται – Ed.]
  • But another relation, which seems more probable to me, runs in this manner. The Scythian nomads were once inhabitants of Asia, and being harrass’d by the Massagetes with frequent wars, they pass’d the river Araxes [Ἀράξην – Ed.], and enter’d the country of the Cimmerians [Κιμμερίους in Greek. The name of this people has a definite Turkic basis: Cimmerians → Kemer/ Kəmər → Kem ‘sick’ + Er/Ər ‘ a man’, meaning most likely ‘ sick,unable, or weak people’. This nation left their trace in a number of toponyms, such as Kemerli, Kemerqaya villages in AzerbaijanKemer town in Turkey, as well as in the name of the Turkic tribe – Kemer/Gemer ↔ Kəmər/Qəmər. There is high probability that the famous Land of Cimmerians, or Kur Gamir  was located at the territory of modern Azerbaijan , namely in the region called Kurdamir – Ed.], who, they say, were the ancient possessors of those regions which are now inhabited by the Scythians: The Cimmerians finding themselves invaded by the Scythians with a numerous army, assembled in council, but could not come to any agreement…For the people were of opinion to abstain from force, and not put all to hazard against so great a multitude. But the kings on the contrary advis’d, that they would oppose the invaders of their country by arms… In this contrariety of opinions they divided ; and being equal in numbers, the two parties engag’d in battle, and all those who fell in the dispute, were buried by the rest of the people near the river Tyras; where their sepulcher remains to this day. When the Cimmerians had perform’d that office, they abandon’d the country and left it entirely dispeopled in the possession of the Scythians

  • Such are the most considerable advantages of the Scythians. Their customs and religious ceremonies are established in this manner. They worship no other gods than these. In the first place Vesta [The correct translation is Hestia↔ Ἱστίη – Ed.] who is their principal deity. Then Jupiter [Zeus ↔Δία – Ed.]; and the Earth [Γῆν – Ed.], which is accounted his wife. After them Apollo, Venus, Urania, Hercules, and Mars [Ἀπόλλωνά, Ἀφροδίτην, Ἡρακλέα, Ἄρεα – Ed.]. All these are generally acknowledg’d: but those who go under the name of Royal Scythians, sacrifice likewise to Neptune [Ποσειδέωνι – Ed.]Vesta, in the Scythian language is call’d ‘Tahiti’ [The correct version is Tabiti ↔ Ταβιτί – Ed.], Jupiter is, in my opinion, rightly nam’d ‘Papœus’ [ Papaios ↔ Παπαῖος – Ed.], the Earth ‘Apia’ [Api ↔ Ἀπί – Ed.], Apollo ‘Oetosyrus’ [Goitosyros ↔ Γοιτόσυρος – Ed.], the celestial Venus ‘Artimpasa’ [Argimpasa ↔ Ἀργίμπασα – Ed.], and Neptune ‘Thamimasades’ [Thagimasidas ↔ Θαγιμασάδας – Ed.]. They erect no images, altars, or temples, to any other god, except Mars [Ares ↔ Ἄρεα – Ed.] alone…who, according to an ancient custom, has an altar in every district… and honour with yearly sacrifices of horses and other cattle, in greater abundance than they offer to the rest of their gods. They likewise sacrifice to this deity every hundredth man of the prisoners they take from their enemies. But in a different manner from the offerings they make of other animals. For after they have pour’d a libation of wine on the head of the prisoner, they cut his throat over a bowl, and then ascending the heap of faggots, wash the sword with his blood. This they do at the top of the altar. And below, after they have kill’d the man on the sacred place, they cut off his right arm by the shoulder; which they throw into the air, and leave on the ground where it falls. Thus the body lies in one part, and the arm in another. When they have perform’d these and other ceremonies, they depart. And such are the sacrifices instituted by the Scythians. They make no use of swine, nor will suffer any to be kept in their country.
  • The military affairs of Scythia are order’d in this manner. Every Scythian drinks the blood of the first prisoner he takes, and presents the king with the heads of the enemies he has kill’d in fight. For if he brings a head, he is intituled to a share of the booty, otherwise not. They flay these heads by cutting a circle round the neck close under the ears; and stripping off the skin, as they would do that of an ox. Then they soften the skin with their hands; and these skins thus prepar’d serve instead of napkins, hanging on the bridles of their horses when they ride. He who has the greater number of these, thinks best of himself, and is accounted the most valiant man. Many Scythians clothe themselves with the skins of men sewed together, as others with the skins of beasts; and frequently stripping the right hands of the enemies they have kill’d, extend those skins with their nails, and use them for coverings to their quivers. For the skin of a man is thick, and of a brighter white, than that of any other animal. Many take off the skins of men entirely, and carry them about on horseback stretch’d out upon a board. These usages are receiv’d among the Scythians. Yet they are not accustom’d to use all heads alike; for those of their greatest enemies are treated in the following manner. They cut off the whole face from the eye-brows downwards, and having cleans’d the rest, if they are poor, they content themselves to cover the skull with leather. But the rich, besides this covering of leather, guild the inside with gold; and these serve instead of cups for their drink. They, do the same to their familiar friends; if upon any dispute they conquer them in the presence of the king. When they entertain any stranger of consideration, they show him these heads, and relating the injurious usage they receiv’d from their friends, together with the victory they obtain’d, value themselves much upon these actions. Every provincial governor provides a vessel of wine once a year in his own province, to treat all those Scythians who have kill’d enemies. Whilst those who have not perform’d any such exploit, sit at a distance with shame, and are not permitted to taste the liquor; which is accounted a great disgrace. But they who have kill’d many men, drink out of two cups, which they bring with them.
  • The Scythians in their alliances and contracts use the following ceremonies with all men. They pour wine into a large earthen vessel, and mingle it with blood taken from those who are to swear, by making a flight wound in their flesh with a knife or sword. When they have done this, they dip a scymeter, some arrows, a bill, and a javelin in the vessel; and after many imprecations, the persons appointed to conclude the agreement, with the most considerable men there present, drink off the liquor. [ This oath taking procedure is reflected in a number of Turkic languages, namely, in modern Azerbaijani language by the expression And içmək that literally means ‘to drink the oath’ – noted by Ed.]
  • These people [ Scythians – noted by Ed.] dreadfully avoid the use of foreign customs, and especially those of the Greeks
  • The Scythians, after they had conferr’d together, and found they were not able with their own forces to resist the army of Darius in the open field, dispatch’d messengers so the adjoining nations; and when their kings were assembled, they consulted how to act, under the apprehensions of being invaded by such a numerous army. This assembly consisted of the kings of Taurusof the Agathyrsians, of the Neurians, of the Androphages, of the Melanchlænians, of the Gelones, of the Budians, and of the Sarmatians [Ταύρων, Ἀγαθύρσων, Νευρῶν, Ἀνδροφάγων, Μελαγχλαίνων, Γελωνῶν, Βουδίνων, Σαυροματέων – Ed.].
  • Of these, the Taurians [In original Greek Ταῦροι ↔ Tauroi → Taur/Tur → Turk – Ed.] observe the following customs. All those who suffer shipwreck, and the Grecians they sieze upon their coast, they sacrifice to a Virgin in this manner. After many imprecations, they strike the man on the head with a club, and, as some affirm, precipitate the body from a hill, on which their temple is built; reserving only the head to be fix’d on a pole; whilst others, acknowledging this to be the way they use in disposing of the head, yet pretend they never throw the body down from the hill, but bury it under ground. The inhabitants of Taurus [ Both words Taurus and Taurians proceed from the Turkic base-word Tur , meaning ‘ strong, powerful’. – noted by Ed.] say, that the Dæmon they worship with these sacrifices, is Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon. Those who fall into their hands in time of war, are treated in another manner. For every one cuts off the head of an enemy; which he carries home, and fixes to a long pole erected on the top of his house, and, for the most part, over the chimney, which they say, is done in order to guard the house. This people live by war and rapine.

  • …no man knows whether Europe be surrounded by the sea, nor from whence that name was deriv’d. Neither are we more certain who was the first imposer; unless we will say that the Tyrian Europa [Εὐρώπη – Ed.] gave her name to that region, which, like the rest, before her time had none. [This passage is better translated by G.C.Macaulay : “As to Europe however, it is neither known by any man whether it is surrounded by sea, nor does it appear whence it got this name or who he was who gave it, unless we shall say that the land received its name from Europa the Tyrian [Τυρίης φήσομεν Εὐρώπης -Ed.]; and if so, it would appear that before this it was nameless like the rest. She however evidently belongs to Asia and did not come to this land which is now called by the Hellenes Europe, but only from Phenicia to Crete, and from Crete to Lykia.” – Ed.]

  •  The Agathyrsians [ The etymology of this word comes from two Turkic words. Agathyrsians →Aga→Agï ‘wealth, treasure’ + Thyrs→Tyras → Tur→Turk,  meaning ‘ wealthy Tyras/Turks‘ – noted by Ed.],  are a luxurious nation, and usually wear clothes embroider’d with gold. They have their women in common, to the end they may be all brethren; by this means conversing so familiarly together, that they never exercise any mutual envy and animosities. In other things they approach the manners of the Thracians.
  • Concerning the Sarmatians [Σαυροματέων  in original Greek, with clear Turkic etymology: Sauromatean → Sarmat  ‘pull out’ → Sarmatan  ”pulled out’. According to HerodotusSauromatians originated from Scythian males and  Amazones ↔Ἀμαζόνων – females, who did not want to live with the rest of the Scythians and pulled Scythian males out of their normal place of habitation and resettled in a new location. Therefore, Sauromatians are considered to be Scythians who were pulled out from their motherland by their wives.- noted by Ed.] we have the following account. When the Grecians had fought a battle on the river Thermodon against the Amazons, who by the Scythians are call’d Aiorpata, or in our language ‘manslayers’; Aior signifying ‘a man’, and Pata ‘to kill’; they departed after the victory they had obtain’d, and in three of their ships carried off all the Amazons they could take alive. [The word Aiorpata is another example of old Turkic origin and remains in the modern Turkic languages lexicon intact. Compare : Aiorpata → Aior→ Ær/Ər ‘ a man’ + Pata→Bat ‘ perish’, ‘crush’, meaning ‘ the one who crushes men’.- noted by Ed.] Whilst they were out at sea, these Amazons conspir’d against the men, and kill’d all they found on board. But having no knowledge of navigation, nor any skill in the use of the rudder, sails or oars, they were driven by wind and tide, ’till they arriv’d at the precipices of the lake Mæotis in the territories of the free Scythians. Here the Amazons went ashore, and marching into the country siez’d and mounted the first herd of horses they found, and began to plunder the Inhabitants. The Scythians could not imagine the meaning of this incursion; and being utterly ignorant of their language, habit and nation, wondered from whence they came. They first conjectur’d that they were men, all of the same age. But after they had skirmish’d with them, and taken some prisoners, they soon perceived they were women. The Scythians therefore consulting together, resolv’d not to kill them; but to send out a party consisting of a like number of young men, with orders to post themselves near their camp, and attend their motions. If the women should attack the party, they were commanded to fly, without making resistance; and when they should find themselves no longer pursued, then to return again, and encamp within the least distance they could. This resolution the Scythians took out of a great desire to have children by these women. The young men observ’d their instructions, and when the Amazons found they were not come with hostile intentions, they suffer’d them to continue there without molestation. And as they had nothing except their arms and horses, they liv’d in the same manner by hunting and pillage. About noon the Amazons usually separated themselves; and sometimes single, sometimes two together, went out to comply with the necessities of nature, which when the Scythians perceiv’d, they did so likewise…  the rest of the young men address’d themselves to the remaining Amazons; the two camps were joyn’d, and every one kept for his wife the person he first convers’d with. But because the men could not attain to speak the Amazonian tongue, the women learn’d the language of Scythia; and when they found on both sides, that they liv’d in a perfect agreement, the Scythians spoke to the Amazons in these terms. “We have our parents and possessions; and being on that account unwilling to continue longer in this way of living, we would return and live among our countrymen; always retaining you and no other persons, for our wives.”  To this the Amazons answer’d: “We shall never endure to live with the women of your country because we differ in manners. For we have been accustom’d to draw a bow; throw a javelin, and mount a horse; and were never instructed in the usual employments of other women. Whereas the Scythian wives do none of the things we have mention’d: But are employ’d in womanish labours; sitting still in your wagons; unaccustom’d to hunting or any other exercise; and therefore we cannot comply with their manner of life. Nevertheless, if you are desirous to keep us for your wives, and to act like honest men, go to your parents; and after you have receiv’d your part of their riches, return and we will live together…. Two things deter us from living in this country: for we have depriv’d you of your parents; and have committed great depredations in these parts. Therefore, since you have thought us worthy to be your wives, let us unanimously agree to pass the Tanais, and fix our habitations on the other side of that river.” The young men consenting to this also; they pass’d the Tanais; and after a march of three days from the river eastward, and three more from the lake Mæotis to the northward, they arriv’d and settled in the regions they now inhabit. Hence, the wives of the Sarmatians, still continue their ancient way of living. They hunt on horseback in the company of their husbands, and sometimes alone. They march with their armies, and wear the same dress with the men. The Sarmatians use the Scythian language; but corrupted from the beginning; because the Amazons never learnt to speak correctly. Their marriages are attended with this circumstance: no virgin is permitted to marry, ’till she has kill’d an enemy in the field; so that some always grow old before they can qualify themselves as the law requires.

  • …a certain Borysthenian, whilst the ceremonies of initiation were perform’d, went out, and discover’d the thing to the Scythian army in these words: “You Scythians”, – said he,” laugh at us, because we celebrate Bacchanals, and are possess’d by the God. But now the same deity has taken possession of your king. For he also celebrates the Rites of Bacchus, full of a divine fury and if you will not believe me, follow, and I will demonstrate the fact “. The principal of the Scythians accompanied him accordingly; and being privately introduc’d by the Borysthenian into one of the towers, they perceiv’d Scyles with the chorus performing the Bacchanalian Rites. They saw these things with great grief, and going back to the camp, acquainted all the army with what they had seen. After some time, when Scyles was return’d home, the Scythians revolted from him, and elected his brother Octamasades, born of the daughter of Tyres...[ The Turkic root Tyr is observed in both geographical names, as well as the names of people and ancient nations, as it was mentioned previously. – noted by Ed.]
  • The two other divisions; one of which being the greater, was under the government of Indathyrsus, and the other commanded by Taxacis, were directed to act in conjunction with the Gelonians and Budians; keeping a day’s march before the Persians, and tiring them with frequent skirmishes.[ The name of the Scythian king also contains a Turkic root Tyr  : Indathyrsus ↔ Ἰδάνθυρσος → Inda→Indä ‘ to call, to summon’  + Thyrsus → Tures/Turas ‘Turks’, meaning ‘ the one who summons Turks‘. – noted by Ed.]
  • Where the Persians [Πέρσῃσι – Ed.] live stretches all the way to the southern sea, called the Red Sea; above them to the north are the Medes [The Medes were countrymen and citizens of Media, situated at the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic. – noted by Ed.], and above the Medes the Saspires [ Evident Turkic word Saspiri ↔ Σασπείρων → Sas → Sәs  ‘a voice, sound’ +   Pir → Bir   ‘one’, meaning ‘ a people of one voice’ – noted by Ed.], and above the Saspires the Colchians [present day Georgians, living in Republic of Georgia – noted by Ed.], who reach the northern sea, into which the river Phasis issues. These are four nations that live between one sea and the other. [Here the southern sea, or Red Sea is the Indian Ocean, while the northern one is the Black Sea. – noted by Ed.]
  • Aryandes had been constituted governor of Egypt under Cambyses, and in succeeding time was put to death by Darius for attempting to emulate one of his actions. He had seen that Darius exceedingly desir’d to leave such a monument of himself as no king had done before; and resolving to imitate the example, he receiv’d the reward of his presumption. For after Darius had coin’d pieces of gold, refined to the utmost perfection; Aryandes governor of Egypt, caus’d the same to be imitated in the purest silver; and this Aryandian money is in high esteem to this day. But when Darius knew what he had done, he charg’d him with a design to rebel, and under that color put him to death. [ The name Aryandes is of Turkic origin and consists of two words: Aryandes → Ar →Er / Är  means ‘a man, a male, a human being’ + Yand →Yandï ‘ to cause fear’, ‘scare’ , meaning ‘ a scary man’ . Compare to the expression ‘ beg anï yandï ‘ , meaning ‘ a bek threatened him/her’ in the book by Mahmud al Kashgari ‘ Divan Lugat-at Turk” – noted by Ed.]
  • Next adjoyning to the Lotophages, are the Machlyes [Μάχλυες – Ed.], on that side which descends to the sea. They eat the fruit of the lotos. But subsist not wholly upon it, like those I mentioned before.
  • Next to these is the seat of the Auses [Αὐσέες – Ed.]; whose territories, together with those of the Machlyes, encompass whole lake of Tritonis, and are separated by the river Triton. They let their hair grow on the fore part of their head, and the Machlyes behind. The Auses celebrate an annual festival to Minerva in which the virgins dividing themselves into two companies, engage in a combat with sticks and stones. This, they say, is done, pursuant to ancient custom, in honor of a hational goddess call’d Minerva; and maintain that all. those who die of the wounds they receive in these combats, were not virgins. But before they depart out of the field, they take the virgin, who by common consent has behav’d herself most valiantly; and having dress’d her in a Corinthian helmet, and a whole suit of Grecian armor, they place her in a chariot, and conduct her in triumph round the lake. What kind of arms these virgins used before the Grecians came to inhabit in those parts, I cannot affirm; but I conjecture they were such as the Egyptians use. And I am of opinion, that the shield and helmet were brought from Egypt into Greece. They say, Minerva was born of of Neptune and the lake Tritonis; and that being discontented with her father on some occasion, she gave herself to Jupiter, who made her his daughter by adoption. The men of this country have no wives appropriated to particular persons; but accompany with all women indifferently, after the manner of other animals. And when a boy has been educated by his mother to a convenient age, he is admitted into an assembly of the men, which is held every three months to that purpose; and the man he applies himself chiefly to, is reputed his father. This nation inhabits the maritime parts, below the Libyan nomads.
  • The west side of the river Triton is inhabited by the Libyan Auses, who being husbandmen, and accustom’d to live in houses, are call’d Maxyes. They wear long hair on the right side of the head, and shave the left. They paint the body with vermilion, and pretend to be of Trojan extraction. Their country, with all the rest of the western parts of Libya abounds more in woods and wild beasts, than those of the nomads. For the regions of Libya that lie to the eastward, and are inhabited by herdsmen, are low and sandy, as far as the river Triton. Whereas, those that are possess’d by husbandmen, and situated beyond that river, to the westward, are mountainous, abounding in woods, and beasts of prey.
  • The most prevailing opinion among the Grecians is, that Libya was so call’d from a woman of that name and country; and Asia [Ἀσίη – Ed.] from the wife of Prometheus. But the Lydians put in a claim to the last, and say that Asia [ Ἀσίεω- Ed.] had its name from Asius, the son of Cotys [Ἀσίεω τοῦ Κότυος – Ed.], and grandson to Maneus [Μάνεω – Ed.], and not from Asia, the wife of Prometheus [Προμηθέος Ἀσίης – Ed.] ; alledging for a proof of their assertion, that they have a tribe in Sardis [Σάρδισι in Greek,  located in western Anatolia, present-day SartmustafaManisa province in western Turkey – Ed.] which goes under the name of the Asian tribe [In original Greek, Ἀσιάδα. This is the same Turkic tribe As,or Az,or Uz that was well-known since ancient times and mentioned in numerous historical works, including Turkic inscriptions carved in stone in the VIII c., such as in Bilge Kagan inscription, Kultegin Inscription. This Turkic tribe left traces in the names of lands and countries – Azerbaijan,Kirqizistan; sea – Azov → Az + Russian ending –ov, that denotes the belonging to something or someone – in this case, it is literally translated as ‘ the sea of Azes‘; cities – Astrakhan → As + Tarkhan ‘a title of the khan’, ‘ a ruler’ – this city used to belong to Turks, but currently is considered to be a part of Russia, cities and towns in Azerbaijan Republic : Azgyr → Az + Gyr ‘ destroy’,meaning ‘ Azes who destroy’; Aza; Yukhary Aza; Azaru → Az + Er/Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘an Az man’, that is an Azeri; Azix ‘ we are Azes’, Astara → As + Tara ‘ disperse’, meaning ‘disperse Azes‘ ; Nizhniye Azy – in SiberiaRussia; nations – Azerbaijani → Az + Er/Ər ‘a man’ + Bay ‘bek, a rich man’ + Jan/Qan ‘ khan’, Kirqiz → Kirq/Qırx ‘forty’ + Az.  – Ed.].
  • …the Lacedemonians and Athenians were the principal nations of Greece, the first being of Dorian, and the other of Ionian descent. They were in ancient time esteem’d the most considerable, when they went under the names of Pelasgians and Hellenians ; of which the latter constantly continued in one country, while the former verry often chang’d their seat. For under the reign of Deucalion, the Pelasgians inhabited the country of Pthiotis ; and in the time of Dorus, the son of Hellenes possess’d that region which is called Istiœotis, lying at the foot of the mountains Ossa and Olympus. From thence being expell’d by the Cadmæans, they betook themselves to Macednum on mount Pindus, which place they afterwards abandon’d for another settlement in Dryopis ; and again changing their country, came to inhabit in Peloponesus, where they were call’d Dorians. What Language the Pelasgians used I cannot certainly affirm; but if I may form a conjecture by that which at present is spoken among those Pelasgians, who being now settled at Crotona beyond the Tyrrhenians, were formerly neighbours to those call’d at this day Dorians, and dwelt in Thessaly when the Pelasgians founded Placia and Scylace on the Hellespont , and liv’d in society with the Athenians. If, I say, adding to these such other Pelasgian cities as have alter’d their name, I may be permitted to give my conjecture, the Pelasgians spoke a barbarous language. … the people of Attica, who are descended from them, must have unlearnt their own mother tongue, after they took the name of Grecians. For the language of the Crotonians and of the Placians is the same; but different from that of all their neighbors. By which it appears they have taken care to preserve the language they brought with them into those places. But the Hellenians, as I think, have from the time they were people, us’d the same language they now speak. And tho’, when separated from the Pelasgians, they were at first of no considerable force; yet from a small beginning they advanc’d to a mighty power, by the conjunction of many nations, as well barbarians as others. Whereas, on the other hand, the Pelasgians being a barbarous nation, seem to me never to have risen to any considerable grandeur.
  • “Our great interest”,- answered the Mages,” is, that your kingdom should be firmly established; because if the sovereignty be alienated and transferr’d to this Persian, we, who are Medes, shall become servants of the Persians  [Πέρσῃσι – Ed.], and be treated as foreigners, with the utmost contempt; whereas now, living under a king of our own country, we have a part in the government, and enjoy the greatest honours. [ Much better translation of this part is given by G.C.Macaulay: “Replying to this the Magians said: “To us also, O king, it is of great consequence that thy rule should stand firm; for in the other case it is transferred to strangers, coming round to this boy who is a Persian, and we being Medes are made slaves and become of no account in the eyes of the Persians, seeing that we are of different race; but while thou art established as our king, who art one of our own nation, we both have our share of rule and receive great honours from thee.” -noted by Ed.]
  •  The Carians [This word Κᾶρας in original Greek has a Turkic origin : Carians↔Κᾶρας↔Karas → Kara ‘black, dark’, meaning ‘ dark-skinned people’- noted by Ed.] came from the islands to inhabit on the continent. They were anciently call’d Leleges [This name is also of Turkic origin: Leleges↔Λέλεγες → Läläk ‘feather’, meaning ‘people,dressed in feathers’ – noted by Ed.] , and liv’d in the islands under the protection of Minos, paying no kind of tribute, that I could ever find by enquiring into the remotest times. But when he had occasion for mariners, they assisted him with their ships in the great conquests he made, and raised themselves to a higher degree of reputation than any other nation. They were the inventors of three things now in use among the Grecians. For the Carians were the first who wore a crest upon their helmets; adorn’d their shields with various figures; and invented the handle, by which they are managed; whereas, before this invention, the shield hung about the soldier’s neck by a thong of leather, and descended by the left shoulder. After a long time, the Dorians and Ionians abandon’d the islands likewise, as the Carians had done, and settled on the continent. And this account the Cretans give of the Carians. But the Carians not assenting to these things, affirm they were originally inhabitants of the continent, and always went under the same name. In testimony of which they show an ancient temple at Mylasa, dedicated to the Carian Jupiter; where the Mysians and Lydians are admitted to participate with the Carians in their worship, as nations of the same blood. For, say they, Lydus and Mysus were brothers to Cares, and on that account the use of this temple is communicated to their posterity, and not to to any other people, through the same language with the Carians. [The last sentence is better translated by G.C.Macaulay:”the Mysians and Lydians share as being brother races of the Carians, for they say that Lydos and Mysos were brothers of Car; these share in it, but those who being of another race have come to speak the same language as the Carians, these have no share in it.”- noted by Ed.]

The History of Herodotus. By Herodotus. Volume 2.

 

  • The Lydians [Λυδοὶ – noted by Ed.] were arm’d more like to the Grecians than any other people of the army. They had been formerly known by the name of Meonians [ Μηίονες – noted by Ed.] ; but were afterwards call’d Lydians from Lydus, the son of Atys. [ Λυδοῦ τοῦ Ἄτους – noted by Ed.]
  • The Mysians had a sort of helmet peculiar to their country, with a little buckler, and pointed javelins, harden’d at the end by fire. They are a colony of the Lydians, and are call’d Olympians– from the mountain Olympus. Both these nations were led by Artaphernes, the son of that Artaphernes who, with Datis, commanded the Persian forces at the battle of Marathon.
  • The Carians contributed seventy ships; and, except their daggers and falchions, were arm’d after the manner of Greece. What name they had in ancient time, I have mention’d in the former part of this work.
  • Concerning the Northern parts of this region, no man can certainly affirm by what people they are possess’d. But those beyond the Danube are wild and impracticable; inhabited by no other men, that I have heard of, but the Sigynes, who wear the Median habit, and have horses cover’d over with hair, like bristles five digits long; low of stature, unable to carry a rider, and having short noses turning upward. Yet, they draw a chariot with swiftness and the Inhabitants use them to that end….The Ligurians, who inhabit beyond Marseilles, call the Sigynes  ‘Brokers’, and the Cyprians give them the name of ‘Javelins’. The Thracians say, that the parts which lie beyond the Danube are full of bees, and on that account impassable. But I think their assertion carries no appearance of truth; because that animal cannot endure the cold; and l am inclin’d to believe that the excessive frost of the Northern climates, are the only cause why those countries are uninhabited. [ The word Sigyne is of Turkic origin: Sigyne → Sïğïn, meaning ‘finding refuge’ – noted by Ed.]
  • About the same time, by means of a certain accident, Darius took a resolution to command Megabyzus to transplant the Pæonians out of Europe into Asia. For Pigres and Mastyes, two Pæonians, being desirous to become masters of Pœonia, came to Sardis after the return of Darius, accompanied by their sister, who was a tall and beautiful person. And observing Darius one day sitting in the suburbs of the Lydians, they dress’d their sister in the best manner they could, and sent her down to the river, carrying a pitcher on her head, leading a horse by a bridle hanging upon her arm, and at the same time spinning a thread from her distaff. Darius looking upon’ the maid with attention as she pass’d by, because her manner was altogether different from the customs, not only of the Persian and Lydian women, but of any other in Asia, order’d some of his guards to observe what she would do with the horse. The guards follow’d her, and found that when she came down to the river, she water’d the horse, and having fill’d her pitcher, return’d again by the same way; carrying the water on her head, leading her horse, and spinning, as she had done before. Darius no less surpriz’d with the account they gave, than with what he himself had seen, commanded her to be brought into his presence… when Darius ask’d who she was, the young men made answer, that they were Pæonians, and that the maid was their sister,…that they came to put themselves under his protection ; that Paonia is situated upon the river Strymon, not far from the Hellespont; and that the people are a colony of Teucrians, from the city of Troy. [The word Teucrians has a Turkic root: Teucrian → Teucr → Teurc → Turk , meaning ‘a Turk’. – noted by Ed.] When they had given account of these particulars, Darius farther demanded, if all the women of that country were as industrious as their sister. And the Pæonians, who had contriv’d the whole design to no other end, readily anwer’d, they were. Upon which a messenger was dispatch’d on horseback, with letters from the King to Megabyzus, general of his forces in Thrace, requiring him to compel the Pæonians to leave their country, and pass into Asia with their wives and children. When the Pæonians heard that the Persians were coming to invade them, they drew all their forces towards the sea, thinking the Persians would attempt to enter that way and prepar’d to dispute their passage. But Megabyzus, understanding that the whole strength of Pœonia was in a readiness to receive him on that side, took his way, by the direction of his guides, towards the upper part of the country. And concealing his march from the enemy, fell in upon their cities empty of men, and easily possess’d himself of all. The Pæonians no sooner heard that their cities were surpriz’d, than they dispers’d themselves; and every man returning home, the whole country submitted to the Persians. And in this manner all those Pæonians, who were known by the names of Seiropæonians and Pæoplians together with the people of those parts that descend towards the lake of Prasias, were expell’d from their ancient seats, and transported into Asia.

  • …the Gergithes, who were the only remaining people of the ancient Teucrians…  [The name of the ancient people Gergithes is comprised of two Turkic words: Gergithes → Ger ↔ Gör ‘ see’  +  Gith ↔ Get ‘go away’, meaning ‘ see and leave’, while the word Teucrians has a Turkic root: Τευκρῶν ↔Teucrian → Teucr → Teurc → Turk , meaning ‘a Turk’. – noted by Ed.]
  • In the meantime Dionysius the Phocæan, when he saw the Ionians totally defeated, abandon’d the fight and sail’d away with three ships he had taken from the enemy. But not at all doubting that Phocaa would be subdued with the rest of Ionia, instead of returning home, he went directly to Phœnicia; and after he had made booty of many trading ships on that coast, sail’d away with immense riches to Sicily. From whence he committed great depredations upon the Carthaginians and Tuscans, yet always sparing the Grecians. [ The word Tuscans is translated as Etruscans  by David Greene in 1987 edition. Both of them are the variants of one name of the Turkic people, consisting of two words: Etruscans ↔ Tuscans → Er ↔ Är ‘a man’  +  Truscan ↔ Tuscan → Turusk → Turk – noted by Ed. ]
  • The Thracian Dolonces, ancient inhabitants of that part of Chersonesus, having suffer’d much in a war against the Absynthians, sent their kings to enquire of the Delphian Oracle concerning the event  and were admonished by the Pythian, to desire the first man, who after their departure from the temple should invite them to lodge in his house, to lead a colony into their country. [ This passage was translated by David Greene as follows: ”  A Thracian tribe, the Dolonci, held the Chersonese, and they were sorely pressed in war by the Apsinthians“. The etymology of this word ‘Dolonci/Dolonces’ is most likely of Turkic origin and proceeds from the word   Dolan  ‘ travel, wander’, meaning ‘ the wanderers’.- noted by Ed.] Accordingly the Dolonces passing by the sacred way thro’ the territories of the Phocæans and Bœotians, and receiving no offer of entertainment, turn’d into the road of Athens. In that time Pisistratus had indeed the supreme power; but Miltiades, the son of Cypselus was not without authority in Athens, being of an illustrious family, anciently descended from Æacus and Ægina, and afterwards establish’d among the Athenians by Philœus, the son of Ajaxthe first of that blood that settled there. This Miltiades sitting before his gates and seeing the Dolonces passing by, cloth’d and arm’d in a different manner from the Athenians, call’d out to them and upon their coming to him, desir’d they would be his guests and accept the entertainment of his house.

  • The Pelasgians had been already driven out of Attica by the Athenians; whether justly or unjustly I shall not determine, having nothing more to say than what is reported on both sides. Hecatœus, the son of Hegesander, affirms they were unjustly expell’d. For, says he, when the Athenians saw that the lands about Hymessus, which they had given to the Pelasgians in payment for the wall they had built about the Acropolis, were improv’d from a barren and unprofitable soil into a fertile and well-cultivated region, they grew envious of their prosperity and coveting to resume the country, drove out the Pelasgians without any other pretence whatever. On the other hand, the Athenians affirm, that they were justly ejected on account of the Injuries they had done. For they saw that while the Pelasagians continued to inhabit under mount Hymessus, they frequently left their habitations and in contempt of the Athenians offer’d violence to their sons and daughters who were sent for water to the place call’d the Nine Fountains, because in those times neither they nor any other people of Greece were furnish’d with slaves. That the Pelasgians not contented with these attempts, were at last manifestly detected to have form’d a design against Athens and that the Athenians, to show themselves as generous as the others had been base, when they had the power of punishing these offenders for their manifest treachery, chose rather to command them only to depart the country which the Pelasgians obeying possessed themselves of Lemnos, and other places.
  • The Hyrcanians [The word Hyrcanians ↔ Ὑρκάνιοι is derived from Turkic word Irqana ‘valley’. The Turkic name Irkay was mentioned in old Turkic legal manuscripts, according to “Древнетюркский Словарь“, 1968. Iyrcians lived in the country Hyrkaniaor nowadays, Shirvan valley, located in Azerbaijan Republic.– noted by Ed.] were also arm’d after the Persian manner, and commanded by Megapanus, who was afterwards governor of Babylon.
  • The Saces, or rather Scythians, wore a cap rising to a point in the form of a pyramid:. They had also thigh-pieces and for arms, carried a sore of bow peculiar to their nation, with a dagger, a bill, and a scymetar. They came from Amyrgium in Scythia, but the Persians call them Saces, which is the common name they give to all the Scythians.
  • The Dorians of Asia furnish’d thirty ships; and as they were Peloponesians by descent, appeared in all points, arm’d like the Grecians.
  • The Arians had bows made like those of the Medes, and in all other things resembling the Bactrians, march’d under the conduct of Sisamnes, the son of Hydarnes.
  • The ParthiansChorasmiansSogdiansGandarians and Dadicians, appear’d in the same arms and clothing as Bactrians under the following leaders: Artabazus, the son of Pharnaces, commanded the Parthians and the ChorasmiansAzanes, the son of Artœus, the Sogdians; and Artyphius, the son of Artabanus, the Gandarians and Dadicians.
  • The Caspians clothed in goatskins and arm’d with a scymetar and with a bow made of cane, after the manner of their country, had for their captain Ariomardus, the brother of Artyphius.
  • The Saranges magnificently dress’d in garments of the richest colors, and buskins drawn up to the knee, carried a bow and javelins, like those of the Medes; and were led by Pherendates, the son of Megabyzus.
  • The Pactyans clothed likewise in goat skins, had a bow and a short sword peculiar to that country, and were commanded by Atrayntes, the son of Itramites.
  • The UtiansMycians and Paricanians, arm’d and cloth’d like the Pactyans, marched under the following captains: Arsamenes, the son of Darius led the Utians and Mycians; and Siromitres, the son of Oebazus, the Paricanians.[ Παρικάνιοι – noted by Ed.]
  •  The Alarodians and the Saspirians, arm’d like the Colchians, march’d under the command of Masistius, the son of Siromitres.
  • The Ionians brought a hundred sail, and were arm’d and cloth’d as the Grecians. Whilst they liv’d in Peloponesus and inhabited those parts which are now called Achaia, before the arrival of Danaus and Xuthus, the Grecians say, they went under the name of Ægialian Pelasgians; and that they had the name of Ionians from Ion, the son of Xuthus.
  • The Islanders appear’d with no more than seventeen Ships, and were arm’d like the Grecians. These also being of Pelasgian original were afterwards call’d Ionians for the same reason; and the twelve cities in like manner have been so named from the Athenians.
  • The Æolians, who, as the Grecians say, were anciently call’d Pelasgians, brought sixty ships and were armed after the manner of Greece.
  • All the Hellespontins (except the Abydenians, who were ordered by the king to stay at home for the guard of the bridges) furnished one hundred sail; and being colonies of the Ionians and Dorians, appeared in Grecian arms. Every one of these ships had soldiers on board who were either Persians, or Medes, or Saces. But the Phœnician ships, and especially those of Sidonia, were the best sailors. All the divisions of this fleet, as well as of the land forces, had their own national officers…
  • Next to the generals I have mentioned, the commanders of greatest fame, were: Tetramnestus, the son of Allesus, of Sidonia ; Mapen, the son of Sironus, of Tyre Τύριος – noted by Ed.] ; Narbal, the son of Arbalus of Aridela [ incorrect spelling of the word, in original Greek it is Ἀγβάλου – Agbalos , and  Ἀράδιος ↔ Arados , not Aridela– noted by Ed.] ; Syennesis, the son of Oromedon, of Cicilia ; Ciberniscus, the son of Sica, of Lycia ; Gortus, the son of Cherses, and Timonax, the son of Timogarus, both Cyprians. And of the CariansHistiæus, the son of Tymnes ; Pygres, the son of Seldomus; and Damasithymus, the son of Candaules. [ The names Mapen, or Matten by David Greene’s translation; Narbal, Arbalus, Tyre, Aridela, or Aradian, according to David Greene’s translation, are all of Turkic origin. Mapen/Matten ↔ Ματτὴν → Mätin, meaning ‘humble’ ; Narbal↔ Μέρβαλος ↔ Närbala → När ‘ brave’ + Bala  ‘ child’, meaning a brave son ; Agbalos↔ Agbala → Ag ‘ white’ + Bala  ‘ a child’, meaning ‘ a white child’.’ – noted by Ed.]
  • But after the bad reception they gave to the heralds of Darius, they could not sacrifice happily for a long time; and being much disturb’d at this calamity, they met together often, and by public proclamation, made inquiry, ” If any  Lacedemonian would die for Sparta.” Upon which notification, Sperthies, the son of Anerlstus, and Bulis, the son of Ncolaus, both Spartans, of eminent dignity and interest,voluntarily offered their lives to make satisfaction to Xerxes, the son of Darius, for the death of his hearlads. And accordingly, these Lacedemonians sent these persons to the Medes, as to certain death. But as their courage deserved admiration, so their words were no less memorable. For when, in their way to Susa, they came to Hydarnes, the Persian general of the maritime parts of Asia, he receiv’d and treated them wiih great magnificence; and among other discourse ask’d them this question; ” Men of Lacedæmon, why have you such an aversion for the king’s friendship? You may see by my example, and the dignities I possess, how well the king understands the value of a brave man. He has already a high opinion of your courage; and if you will comply with his desires, he will certainly confer the government of some part of  Greece upon every one of your nation.” They answer’d: ” Hydarnes, you are not a proper person to give us counsel in this affair, for you determine concerning two things not  equally understood by you. How to be a servant, you know perfectly well; but you  have neither tried whether liberty be valuable, or not. If you had ever experience the worth of liberty, you would counsel  us to defend it, not only with lances, but even with hatchets.”
  • For Nicolaus, the son of Bulis, and Aneristus, the son of Sperthies, (who had before taken and pillag’d some Tyrinthian fishermen,) being sent on a message to Asia by the Lacedemonians, were betrayed in their passage by Sitalces, the son of Tyreus, king of Thrace… [ The same Turkic root  Tyr  is observed in the names, such as Tyrinthian and Tyreus. – noted by Ed.]
  • But the Corinthians and Corcyreans saved the Syracusians, after they had been defeated upon the river Florus [ The name of Corcyrean is based on two words of Turkic origin : Cor ↔ Kör  ‘see’  + Cyr ↔ Kir → Qïr  ‘destroy’ , meaning ‘ the ones who see and destroy, most likely,the enemy’. – noted by Ed.]
  • When the Pelasgians possess’d those countries, which now go by the name of Greece, the Athenians were called Cranian Pelasgians. Under the reign of Cecrops, they had the name of Cecropians; which in the time of their king Erechtheus, they changed for that of Athenians, and lastly were named Ionians from Ion, the son of Xuthus, who was their general.
  • The Seriphians, the Siphnians, and the Melians took part with the Grecians likewise, having already distinguished themselves from all the rest of the islanders, by refusing earth and water to the barbarian. All these nations are situated between the river Acheron and the Thesprotians, who inhabiting beyond Ambracia and Leucadia, came to this expedition from a greater distance than the rest.
  • The Melians, who are descended from the Lacedemonians, furnished two; and the Siphnians, with the Seriphians, both Ionians, of Athenian original, two more. So that the whole number of these ships, without accounting the gallies, amounted to three hundred and seventy eight.