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The History of Herodotus.

  • Our great Interest, answer’d the Mages, is, that your kingdom should be firmly establish’d; because if the sovereignty be alienated and transferr’d to this Persian, we, who are Medes, shall become servants of the Persians, and be treated as foreigners, with the utmost contempt; whereas now, living under a king of our own country, we have a part in the government, and enjoy the greatest honours.
  • Being thus possess’d of the power, he [the king of MedesDeioces Δηιόκης – noted by Ed.] compell’d the Medes to …build one city surrounded with fortifications. In this also he was obey’d; and those strong and magnificent walls, which now go under the name of Ecbatana [This name is incorrectly spelled, as in original Greek it is pronounced as Agbatana– Ἀγβάτανα. The word is purely of Turkic origin – Ag  ‘white’ + Batan  ‘immersed; sinking’ , meaning ‘ immersed into white”. The outer walls of this city were of white color. – noted by Ed.] were then built. They are of a circular form, one within the other, and each gradually rais’d just so much above the other, as the battlements are high. The situation of the ground, rising by an easy ascent, was very favourable to the design. But the thing chiefly to be consider’d, is that the king’s palace and treasury are built within the innermost circle of the seven, which compose this city. The first and most spacious of these walls is equal in circumference to the city of Athens, and white from the foot of the battlements.
  • The distance between the lake Mæotis [Μαιήτιδος – Ed.] and the river Phasis [Φᾶσιν – Ed.] in the country of Colchis [Κολχίδος – Ed.], is as much as a vigorous man can walk in thirty days. But the way from Colchis to Media is not long, no other people than the Saspires lying between both. [ Herodotus does not mention Armenians here, as at that time they lived in Asia Minor, not in Caucasus. Back then Armenians did not border with Media, which is the territory of modern Azerbaijan, either with Cholchis, modern Georgians, or with Saspires, a Turkic tribe. – noted by Ed.]
  • These Phocæans were the first of all the Grecians who undertook long voyages, and discover’d the coasts of AdriaTyrrhenia [The Turkic word Tyrrhenian , or Turanian, have the same Turkic root – Tur ↔ Turk – noted by Ed.]Iberia and Tartesus.
  • Mount Caucasus, as I said before, is extended on the West of the Caspian Sea; and on the East, towards the rising of the sun, lies a plain of immense extent. The greater part of this country is inhabited by the Massagetes[Μασσαγέτας  in original Greek. This word is comprised of two words: Massagetes → Massa + Getes, where Massa is a geographical name, and Gete  with its variation Ket↔Ked  means ‘ strong, selected’ in Turkic , thus ‘a nation of the strong, selected people from the land of Massa‘. The land of Massa was mentioned in a rock inscription Jebel Ghunaym, dated 6c. BC. – noted by Ed.]
  • … I sail’d to Tyre in Phœnicia [Τύρον↔ Tyron↔Tyre is a Turkic word based on a Turkic root  Tur ↔ Turk – noted by Ed.], because I had heard there was a temple dedicated to Hercules [Ἡρακλέα – Ed.]. That temple I saw, enrich’d with many magnificent donations, and among others with two pillars, one of fine gold, the other made of a smaragdus, which shines by night in a surprizing manner. Conversing with the priests of this God, and inquiring how long this temple had been built, I found these also to differ from the Grecians. For they assur’d me that the temple was built at the same time with the city, and that two thousand three hundred years were already past since the foundation of Tyre. In this city I saw another temple dedicated to Hercules by the name of Thasian; and when I arriv’d in Thasus, I found there also a Temple of the same God, built by those Phœnicians, who founded that city during the expedition they made in search of Europa which was five generations before Hercules the son of Amphitryon appear’d in Greece
  • The priests farther inform’d me, that a native of Memphis, who in the Grecian language would be nam’d Proteus, succeeded him in the kingdom, and is honour’d in a stately temple, which is still seen at Memphis, richly adorn’d, and standing on the north side of that dedicated to Vulcan. The parts adjacent to the temple are inhabited by Phœnicians of Tyre [Φοίνικες Τύριοι -Ed.], and all that region is call’d the Tyrian Camp. 
  • Among the rest of his confederates, he sent to the Lacedemonians who at the same time had a contest with the Argians, about the country of Thyrea [Θυρέης – noted by Ed.] , which the Spartans had seiz’d, though of right belonging to Argos. And indeed, whatever lies westward of that city, even to Malea, on the continent, together with Cythera, and the other Islands, belongs to the Argians. [The names of places,country, such as Tyrian,Tyre,Thyrea ↔ Θυρέης share the same Turkic root – Tyr → Tur → Turk, meaning ‘ Turkic‘,’Turk‘, – noted by Ed.]
  • When I ask’d the priests whether the account of the Trojan War, as related by the Grecians, was not an impertinent story, they assur’d me they were inform’d by Menelaus himself, that after the rape of Helena, the Grecians resolving to assist him, form’d a numerous army, and landed in Teucris. [Τευκρίδα  [The word Teucris has a Turkic root: Teucris → Teucr → Teurc → Turk , meaning ‘a Turk‘. – noted by Ed.]
  • As it was,however, from the moment of the colonization of Corcyra [In original Greek, it is Kerkura ↔Κέρκυραν: Ker ↔ Gör ‘see’ + Kyr ‘destroy’. Modern day Kérkyra, it was named after the fortress overlooking the city. – noted by Ed.] by Corinth, the two states had been at enmity with one another despite their kinship.
  • The territories of Lydia [Λυδὸς, occupied the territory of modern western provinces of Turkey – noted by Ed.] have nothing admirable and deserving mention, like other countries… But the Lydians show one building, which in greatness much surpasses all others, except those of the Ægyptians and Babylonians. I mean the sepulchre of Alyattes [Ἀλυάττης -noted by Ed.], father to Crœsus; the basis of which is compos’d of stones of extraordinary dimensions, and all the rest is a terrasse…. standing near a spacious lake, which the Lydians say is fed by perpetual springs, and derives its name from Gyges.[Γύγην – noted by Ed.] The customs of the Lydians differ little from those of the Grecians…They were the first of all the nations we know, who introduc’d the art of coining gold and silver to facilitate trade, and first practis’d the way of retailing merchandize. They pretend to be the inventors of divers games, which are now common to them with the Grecians. And, as they say, were found out about the time they sent a colony to Tyrrhenian [The Turkic word Tyrrhenian , or Turanian, have the same Turkic root – Tur ↔ Turk – noted by Ed.] on this occasion. During the reign of Atys, the son of Manes – king of Lydia, a scarcity of provisions spread over the kingdom, which the people for a time supported with patience and industry. But when they saw the evil still continuing, they applied themselves to find out a remedy; and some inventing one game, and others another, they gradually introduced dice, balls, tables, and all other plays, chess only excepted, of which the Lydians do not challenge the invention. And to bear this calamity better, they us’d to play one whole day without intermission, that they might not be disquieted with the thoughts of food; eating and drinking on the next day, without amusing themselves with any kind of game. After they had continued this alternate manner during eighteen years, and found their wants rather increasing than abating, the king divided the people into two parts, and order’d them to determine by lot, which division should relinquish the country and which should remain in possession; he himself designing to reign over those who should have the fortune to stay, and appointing his son Tyrrhenus to command that part which should be oblig’d to remove. Those who by lot were constrain’d to depart, march’d down to Smyrna, where having built a sufficient number of ships, and put all things necessary on board, they set sail in search of food, and of a new habitation; till having pass’d by many Nations, they arriv’d in Umbria, and built divers cities, which they inhabit to this day. There they chang’d their ancient name, and were no longer call’d Lydians but Tyrrhenians, from their leader Tyrrhenus, the son of their king.

  • In the next place, the Samians sail’d to Hermione, and instead of money, receiv’d the Island of Thyrea, situated near Peloponnesus, which they committed to the care of the Trœzenians…
  • Croesus, by birth a Lydian, and son to Alyattes, was king of those nations that are situated on this side the river Halys, which descending from the south, and passing northward between the Syrians and Paphlagonians, falls into the Euxin sea. [The name of the river Halys, or in original Greek – Aluos ↔ Ἅλυος  is derived from the Turkic word Al  ‘red’. Modern name of this river, located in Turkey, is Kızılırmak , that means ‘red river’. noted by Ed.]
  • The Cappadocians, by the Grecians call’d Syrians, were subject to the Medes before the establishment of the Persian power; and in the time of this war were under the dominion of Cyrus. For the kingdoms of Media and Lydia are separated by the river Halys, which descending from the mountains of Armenia, passes thro’ Cilicia; and leaving the Matienians on the right and the Phrygians on the left hand, tends to the northward, and divides the Syrians of Cappadocia from the Paphlagonians; the former inhabiting on the right, and the latter on the left of that stream. In this manner, the river Halys divides almost all the lower Asia, from the Cyprian to the Euxin sea, which is in length as much as a strong man can travel over in five days.

  • For all that lies between the hills I have mentioned as being above the city of Memphis seems to me to have been once a gulf of the sea, just as the lands around Ilium and Teuthrania and Ephesus and the plain of the Meander were – to compare these small things with big ones.
  • From Ecbatana [In original Greek, it is Agbatana Ἀγβατάνων that has Turkic base words: Ag ‘ white’ + Batan ‘sinking’, meaning ‘ sinking into white’.  Compare to Lekbatan, a region near city of Baku in modern Azerbaijan Republic. Consists of two Turkic words: Lök ‘ a child of camel’ + Batan ‘sinking’ – noted by Ed.] and the rest of Media and from the Paricanians and the Orthocorybantians, 450 talents.
  • To this end they fortified the frontier of the country by a broad ditch, carried on from Mount Taurus [The word Taurus is of Turkic origin : Taurus →Taur/Tur → Turk. Compare : mount Taurus, city of Taurus which is currently called Tabriz, located in the Southern Azerbaijan and inhabited by Azerbaijanis , or Turks, as they call themselves. In the original Greek, it is Ταυρικῶν ↔ Taurikon, that also based on the Turkic root Taurik→ Turik →Turk . – noted By Ed.] to the Lake Mæotis [Μαιῆτιν ↔ Maietin in Greek – has a Turkic ethymology from the word Mətin  ‘humble’ – noted by Ed.] , which is the greatest of all others, and when the Scythians endeavour’d to force their Intrenchment, they drew together and made a vigorous resistance.
  • There is a plain in Asia [Ἀσίῃ -Ed.], encompass’d on every side with a ridge of hills, opening into five several passages. This country was formerly in the possession of the Chorasmians, inhabiting the mountains; and of the Hyrcanians, Parthians, Sarangæans, and Thomanians; but since the establishment of the Persian power, belongs to the king. A great river, known by the name of Aces [Modern day Amu Darya river, its ancient name Ἄκης↔Akes↔Aces  proceeds from Turkic word Akis ↔ Ağız ‘mouth’ – noted by Ed.], flows from these hills, and in times past water’d the territories of the nations before mention’d. But these people have suffer’d much since they were reduc’d under the dominion of the Persians. For the king caus’d the apertures to be so effectually stopp’d, that the river finding no passage out, was inclos’d within the hills as in a basin. And the people, who before had been supplied with those waters, being depriv’d of a thing so necessary, were reduc’d to great extremities…But this, as I am well inform’d, was only a contrivance to extort great sums of money besides the usual tribute.

  • To the eastward of those Scythians who apply themselves to the culture of land, and on the other side of the river Panticapes [Παντικάπην ↔ Pantikapan in original Greek, the name of the river has a Turkic origin, comprised of two words Panti → Bantı ‘tied, attached’ + Kapan → Qapan ‘dragging, taking away’, literally meaning ‘ the one that takes away the tied up or attached’, or ‘a powerful river with strong force’. The construction of this name additionally testifies in favor of the Turkic origin, as in Indo-European languages,  ‘dragging the tied’, not ‘the tied dragging’ is the correct version of the expression, unlike the Turkic languages, where it is vice versa. – Ed.], the country is inhabited by Scythians, who neither plow nor sow, but are employ’d in keeping cattle; none of those parts producing trees, except Hylæa [Ὑλαίης – Ed.] only.
  • These herdsmen possess a tract of land of fourteen days march from the east to the river Gerrhus [Γέρρου – Ed.].
  •  On the other side of this river are the Royal Provinces, full of people, and possess’d by the most valiant of all the Scythians, who think all the rest to be only their slaves. Their country extends from the south to Mount Taurus [The following translation by G.C.Macaulay is more precise: ” These reach southwards to the Tauric land…” – Ed.] ; and from the east to the Intrenchments that were made by the sons of the blind men, and to the port of Chremni [Κρημνοί – Ed.], on the lake Mæotis; besides that part which borders upon the river Tanais [Τάναϊν – Don  is one of the major rivers of modern day Russia. It rises in the town southeast of Tula and flows to the Sea of Azov. – noted by Ed. ]. Above these Royal Scythians the Melanchlænians inhabit to the northward; a distinct nation, and not of Scythian race. But beyond them all is full of fens, and uninhabited, as we are inform’d.
  •  The regions that lye beyond the river Tanais, are no part of Scythia. The first portion belongs to the Sauromatians [Σαυροματέων in original Greek with clear Turkic etymology: Sauromatean → Sarmat  ‘pull out’ → Sarmatan  ”pulled out’. According to Herodotus, Sauromatians originated from Scythian males and  Amazones – females, who did not want to live with the rest of the Scythians and pulled Scythian males out of their normal place of habitation and resettled in a new location. Therfore, Sauromatians are considered to be Scythians who were pulled out from their motherland by their wives. – Ed.]; who inhabit a country of fifteen days march from the farthest part of the lake Mæotis to the northward, destitute of all kind of trees, either wild or cultivated. 
  • The second is possess’d by the Budians [Precisely, Βουδῖνοι ↔ Bodinoi came from the Turkic word Bodun , meaning ‘people’- Ed.], abounding in trees of all sorts, and ending in a desert of seven days journey.
  • Next to which, and a little deflecting to the eastward, the Tyssagetes [Here the word Tyssagetes ↔ Θυσσαγέται  proceeds from two words: Thyssagetes → Thyssa + Getes→ Ket  ‘strong’, meaning ‘ Getes of Thyssa“, or ‘ the selected ones from Thyssa . – noted by Ed.] inhabit; who are a separate people, very numerous, and living upon the venison they take.
  • The Iyrcians are contiguous to these; and possessing another part of the country, subsist also by hunting, in this manner. They climb the trees (which abound in all places) and wait for the game, attended by a dog, and a horse taught to lye down upon his belly to prevent discovery. When the hunter sees the beast from the tree, he lets fly an arrow, mounts his horse, and pursues the chace with his dog. [The word Iyrcians ↔ Ἰύρκαι is derived from Turkic word Irqana ‘valley’. The Turkic name Irkay was mentioned in old Turkic legal manuscripts, according to “Древнетюркский Словарь“, 1968. Iyrcians lived in the country Hyrkaniaor nowadays, Shirvan valley, located in Azerbaijan Republic. – noted by Ed.]
  • The next region to the eastward, is inhabited by Scythians, who separating from the Royal Scythians, settled themselves there.Thus far Scythia is a plain country, and of a deep soil. But the rest is rocky and uneven.
  • But the Issedonians affirm, that the regions beyond them, are posless’d by men who have only one eye, and by griffins that guard the gold. The Scythians repeat these  things from the Issedonians, and we have them from the Scythians, who give the name of Arimaspians to the people above-mention’d, because Arima, in the Scythian language, signifies ‘one, and Spou – ‘an eye’. All this country is so infested with cold during the winter, and frosts so excessive for eight months in the year, that if a man pours water on the earth, he shall not make dirt, unless he stands by a fire.
  • Where the Persians [Πέρσῃσι – Ed.] live stretches all the way to the southern sea, called the Red Sea; above them to the north are the Medes [The Medes were countrymen and citizens of Media, situated at the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic. – noted by Ed.], and above the Medes the Saspires [ Evident Turkic word Saspiri ↔ Σασπείρων → Sas → Sәs  ‘a voice, sound’ +   Pir → Bir   ‘one’, meaning ‘ a people of one voice’ – noted by Ed.], and above the Saspires the Colchians [Present day Georgians, living in Republic of Georgia – noted by Ed.], who reach the northern sea, into which the river Phasis issues. These are four nations that live between one sea and the other. [Here the southern sea, or Red Sea is the Indian Ocean, while the northern one is the Black Sea. – noted by Ed.]

Herodotus map, No Armenia

  • The Ister is the greatest of all rivers we know, flowing with an equal stream both in summer and winter, and descends from the westward into Scythia. This river becomes so great by the addition of many other waters. In the first place, five several rivers passing thro’ Scythia, contribute to swell its stream. The first of these is by the Scythians call’d Porata, and by the Grecians Pyreton. The other four go under the names of TiarantusArarus, Naparis, and Ordissus. The Porata is a considerable river; and running towards the east, flows into the Ister. The Tiarantus is less, and deflects rather to the westward. The ArarusNaparis, and Ordissus pass between both, and fall likewise into the same river. All these are properly Scythian rivers; but the Maris descends from the Agathyrsians, and mixes with the same stream. 

  •  The first river then of Scythia is the Ister [Ἴστρος – Ed.]. The second is the Tyres [Τύρης – Ed.], which comes from the north, issuing out of a vast lake, and separates Scythia from Nebris. At the mouth of this river certain Grecians inhabit, who, for that reason, are call’d Tyrites.[Tyres and Tyrites are Turkic words based on a Turkic root  Tur ↔ Turk – noted by Ed.]...The third is the Hypanis [Ὕπανις -Ed.], descending likewise from a great lake in Scythia, which is deservedly nam’d the mother of that river.This spring rises in the borders of the Scythian husbandmen and Alazons [Ἀλαζόνων – Ed.], and from that part of the country is call’d by the name of Exampaus ; which, in the Grecian language, signifies ‘The sacred Ways’. [This passage is better translated by G.C.Macaulay; “This spring is on the border between the lands of the agricultural Scythians and of the Alazonians, and the name of the spring and of the place from which it flows is in Scythian Exampaios [Ἐξαμπαῖος – Ed.], and in the Hellenic tongue Hierai Hodoi.”-noted by Ed.]..The Borysthenes [Βορυσθένης – Ed.] which is the fourth and greatest river of Scythia after the Ister, surpasses, in my opinion, not only the rest of the Scythian rivers but all others, except the Ægyptian Nile…At the mouth of this river abundance of salt is incessantly made by the hand of nature ; and a sort of whale is taken of great bigness ; and without any spinous bones ; which the Scythians use to salt, and call by the name of “Antacæus”[Antacaioi ↔ ἀντακαίους – Ed.]….The fifth river is the Panticapes [Παντικάπης – Ed.], which also descends from the north, and out of a lake ; and between this river and the Borysthenes, the country is inhabited by Scythian husbandmen. The Panticapes enters into Hylæa [Hyblaia -Ὑβλαίην – Ed.], and pasting quite through that region, mixes with the Borysthenes. The Hypacaris [Hypakyris ↔Ὑπάκυρις – Ed.] is the sixth river, which beginning in a lake, traverses the country of the Scythian herdsmen, and then closing the borders of Hylæa on the right, together with that place, which is call’d the Race of Achilles, rolls into the sea at the city of Carcinitis [Καρκινῖτιν – Ed.]. The seventh is the Gerrhus [Γέρρος – Ed.] ; which, by a country of the same name, is separated from the Borysthenes, in those parts where this river begins to be known ; dividing the territories of the herdsmen from those of the Royal Scythians, and then falling into the Hypacaris. The eighth river is the Tanais [Τάναϊς – Ed.], originally descending from a great lake, and enter ing into another yet greater, call’d Mæotis [Maiatin ↔ Μαιῆτιν – Ed.], which separates the Royal Scythians and the Sarmatians. The river Hygris [Hyrgis ↔ Ὕργις – Ed.] runs into the Tanais ; and all these celebrated rivers serve for the use and defense of Scythia.
  • The burial places of their kings are in the country of the Gerrhi , the place up to which the Borysthenes is navigable. [The name of the Scythian country Gerrhi ↔ Γέρροισι has a Turkic origin and means ‘back’ ←  Geri  – noted by Ed.]
  • The country [Scythia – noted by Ed.] does not have great marvels except for the rivers, which are the greatest and most numerous in the world….They showed me the footprint of Heracles, on rock; it is like a man’s footprint but is three feet long, and it is by the river Tyras. [Tyras is a Turkic word, based on a Turkic root  Tur ↔ Turk – noted by Ed.]
  • The territories of Thrace lie extended along the borders of Scythia, and descend to the sea in the form of a bay. Above these countries Scythia begins, and the Ister falls into the Euxin, with his mouth turn’d towards the east. But I must now describe those regions of Scythia, that begin at the Ister, and stretch down by the sea coast. That part, which lies north and south of the Ister, is the ancient Scythia, and extends to the city of Carcinitis [Καρκινίτιδος – Ed.]. And the mountainous regions, which begin at that place, and are situated along the Exin, descending towards the shore, belong to the people of Taurus, and reach to the rocky Chersonesus, that terminates in the Eastern Sea. [The word Taurus is of Turkic origin: Taurus →Taur/Tur → Turk. Compare : mount Taurus, city of Taurus which is currently called Tabriz, located in the Southern Azerbaijan and inhabited by Azerbaijanis , or Turks as they call themselves – Ed.]. Thus Scythia is divided into two parts, both extending to the sea ; one towards the south and the other towards the east; not unlike the region of Attica. For the inhabitants of Taurus are so plac’d in Scythia; as any other people would be, who instead of the Athenians, should possess the Promontory of Sunium, which advances to the sea between the tribes of Thoricus and Anaphlystus. Such is the situation of Taurus; if I may be permitted to compare small things with great. [A better translation of this passage is given by G.C.Macaulay:”After this the part which lies on the coast of the same sea still, a country which is mountainous and runs out in the direction of the Pontus, is occupied by the Tauric [Ταυρικὸν ↔Turkic -Ed.] race, as far as the peninsula which is called the “Rugged Chersonese“; and this extends to the sea which lies towards the East Wind: for two sides of the Scythian boundaries lie along by the sea, one by the sea on the South, and the other by that on the East, just as it is with Attica: and in truth the Tauroi [Ταῦροι ↔ Turks – Ed.] occupy a part of Scythia which has much resemblance to Attica; it is as if in Attica another race and not the Athenians occupied the hill region of Sunion, supposing it to project more at the point into the sea, that region namely which is cut off by a line from Thoricos to Anaphlystos. Such I say, if we may be allowed to compare small things such as this with great, is the form of the Tauric land.”- Ed.]

  • The Scythians inhabit the countries that lie beyond the Taurians, and those that extend to the Eastern Sea; together with the regions situate to the westward of the Cimmerian Bosphorus and the Lake Mæotis [Μαιήτιδος – Ed.], to the River Tanais [Τανάιδος – Ed.], which flows into that lake. So that those countries which beginning at the Ister, advance upwards to the midland parts, are border’d first by the Agathyrsians; then by the Neurians [Νευρῶν – Ed.]; next by the Androphages [Ἀνδροφάγων – Ed.]; and in the last place, by the Melanchlænians [Μελαγχλαίνων – Ed.]. Thus, Scythia is of a quadrangular form; and the two parts that descend to the sea, are equal to the other two that lie far within the land. For from the Ister to the Borysthenes, is a journey of ten days; ten more from the Borysthenes to the lake Mæotis; and twenty from the sea by the midland countries to the Melanchlænians, who inhabit above the Scythians. Now if we allow two hundred stades for every day’s journey, the way that traverses Scythia, contains four thousand stades in length; and the direct passage upwards by the midland parts,the same number. Such is the extent of this country.
  • From the coast of Scythia to Themiscyra [This word Θεμισκύρην consists of two Turkic words: Themis → Temiz ‘clear’,’clean’ + Cyr→ Kir ‘ dirt’, ‘mud’, meaning ‘clear from mud’ – noted by Ed.], situated on the river Thermodon [Θερμώδοντι – Ed.], which is the broadest part of the Euxin Sea [In original Greek, it is Pontus ↔ Πόντου – Ed.], the passage is made in three days and two nights…
  • …the Lacedemonians and Athenians were the principal nations of Greece, the first being of Dorian, and the other of Ionian descent. They were in ancient time esteem’d the most considerable, when they went under the names of Pelasgians and Hellenians ; of which the latter constantly continued in one country, while the former verry often chang’d their seat. For under the reign of Deucalion, the Pelasgians inhabited the country of Pthiotis ; and in the time of Dorus, the son of Hellenes possess’d that region which is called Istiœotis, lying at the foot of the mountains Ossa and Olympus. From thence being expell’d by the Cadmæans, they betook themselves to Macednum on mount Pindus, which place they afterwards abandon’d for another settlement in Dryopis ; and again changing their country, came to inhabit in Peloponesus, where they were call’d Dorians. What Language the Pelasgians used I cannot certainly affirm; but if I may form a conjecture by that which at present is spoken among those Pelasgians, who being now settled at Crotona beyond the Tyrrhenians, were formerly neighbours to those call’d at this day Dorians, and dwelt in Thessaly when the Pelasgians founded Placia and Scylace on the Hellespont , and liv’d in society with the Athenians. If, I say, adding to these such other Pelasgian cities as have alter’d their name, I may be permitted to give my conjecture, the Pelasgians spoke a barbarous language. … the people of Attica, who are descended from them, must have unlearnt their own mother tongue, after they took the name of Grecians. For the language of the Crotonians and of the Placians is the same; but different from that of all their neighbors. By which it appears they have taken care to preserve the language they brought with them into those places. But the Hellenians, as I think, have from the time they were people, us’d the same language they now speak. And tho’, when separated from the Pelasgians, they were at first of no considerable force; yet from a small beginning they advanc’d to a mighty power, by the conjunction of many nations, as well barbarians as others. Whereas, on the other hand, the Pelasgians being a barbarous nation, seem to me never to have risen to any considerable grandeur.
  • …what is now Greece but in those early days was called Pelasgia – the very same land…
  • The Ionian cities, of which this confederacy consists, are more commodiously and happily plac’d than any other we know among men; for neither the regions that are above Ionia on one side, nor those that lie below on the other, nor any part situated either to the east or west, can justly be compar’d with this country; because they are either chill’d with cold and rain, or expos’d to the excesses of heat and dryness. All the Ionians are not of the same language; but have four different ways of expressing themselves. The city of Miletus lies to the southward, and is accounted the principal of this league. The next are Myus and Priene. These three are situated in Caria, and use the same dialect. Ephesus, Colophon, Lehedus, Teos, Clazomene, and Phocæa, are part of Lydia; and though they vary not at all from one another in their manner of speaking, yet their language is different from the other. The rest of the Ionian communities are three, two of which inhabit the islands of Chios and Sapios; but the Erythræans are plac’d on the continent. This people use the same dialect with those of Chios; whereas the Samians have one peculiar to themselves. And these are the four proprieties of speech observ’d in Ionia.