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Hudud al-Alam – The Regions of the World.

  • N.zvan [Nizvani is a Sogdian word, stands for ‘passion’. – Ed.], a wealthy country of Tibet with many commodities. In this country there is a tribe called Mayul from which the kings of Tibet come. In (this province) two small villages are found of which the one is called  N.zvan and the other Muyul. [The word Mayul is of Turkic origin, meaning ‘overripe’. -Ed.]
  • Ajayul [A Turkic word combining two Turkic words into a complex one Ajayul ↔ Aj/Ac ‘hungry’ + Ayul/Ayıl ‘spare; have a pity; favor’, meaning ‘favor the poor’. – Ed.], a place with pastures, meadows, and felt-huts of some Tibetans. When the Tubbat-khaqan dies and from the said tribe no one remains, the people elect a chief from among these Ajayul.
  • Discourse on the Toghuzghuz Country and its towns… This country is the largest of the Turkish countries and originally the Toghughuz were the most numerous tribe. The kings of the whole of Turkistan in the days of old were from the Toghuzghuz. They are warlike people possessing great numbers of arms. In summer and winter they wander from place to place along the grazing grounds in the climates which (happen to be) the best… The wealthiest are the Turks. The Tatar too are a race of the Toghuzghuz.
  • Discourse on the Country of the Yaghma” (spelt: Yaghmiya) and its towns…The people are hardy, strong, and warlike, and have plenty of arms. Their king is from the family of the Toghuzghuz kings. These Yaghma (Yaghma’iyan) have numerous tribes; some say that among them 1,700 known tribes are counted. Both the low and the nobles among them venerate their kings. The B.laq (B.laqiyan) are also a clan of the Yaghma mixed with the Toghuzghuz, and in their region there are a few villages. 1.Kashghar belongs to Chinistan but situated on the frontier between the Yaghma, Tibet, the Khirkhiz, and China. The chiefs of Khashgar in the days of old were from the Khallukh, or from the Yaghma. 2.Artuj (spelt: B.rtuj) was a populous village of the Yaghma, but snakes grew numerous the people abandoned the village. 3.Khirm.ki, a large village. (The people) are Artuzians(spelt Bartuji). In the village are three kinds of Turks: Yaghma, Khallukh, and Toghuzghuz.
  • Discourse on the Khirkhiz Country…Their king is called Khirkhiz-khaqan. These people …have rough faces and scanty hair. They are lawless and merciless, (but) good fighters and warlike. They are at war and on hostile terms with all the people living around them. Their wealth consists of Khirphiz merchandise, sheep, cows, and horses. They wander along rivers, grass,climates, and meadows. they venerate the Fire and burn the dead. they are owners of the tents and felt-huts, and are hunters and game-killers. 1.Furi, a name of a tribe which also belongs to the Khirkhiz but lives east of them and does not mix with other groups of Khirkhiz. they are man-eaters and merciless. 2.This side of the Furi there is a town K.m.jkath where the Khirkhiz -khaqan lives. 3.K.Saym, name of a clan of the Khirkhiz who with their felt-huts have established themselves on the slopes of the mountains. They hunt for furs, musk, khutu…Their language is nearer to that of the Khallukh and they dress like the Kimak. Except at the residence of the khaqan, no class of the Khirkhiz has any villages or towns at all.
  • Discourse on the Khallukh Country and its towns…The Khallukhs are …pleasant tempered and sociable. In the days of old, the kings of the Khallukh were called Jabghuy, and also Yabghu…Some of the Khallukh are hunters, some agriculturists and some herdsmen. Their wealth is in sheep, horses, and various furs. they are warlike people, prone to forays…Mirki, a village inhabited by the Khallukh and also visited by merchants. Between these two villages there are three Khallukh tribes called: Bistan, Khaym, and B.rish. 
  • Discourse on the Chigil Country…The latter possess few pleasant towns and villages. Their wealth is in cows, sheep, and horses. Some of them worship the Sun and the stars. They are good-natured people, sociable and kind, and their king is one of themselves. 1.Sikul, a large town on the frontier between the Khallukh and the Chigil, close to the Muslim world. It is a prosperous and pleasant place where merchants reside.
  • Discourse on the Tukhs [Tukhs → Tukh/Tokh/Toq ‘ well fed, replete’ + Az , meaning ‘ well-fed Az people’.- Ed] Country and its towns… This country is much more pleasant than (that of) Chigil. 1.Lazina and F.rakiya Frakiya is ancient Thrace that was talked about by Herodotus – Ed.], two clans of Tukhs, each of which possess a small country, and there are two villages called after these two tribes. [The correct spelling of Lazina is Al-Aziya in Arabic manner , or Aziya in Turkic. The country of this Az clan was most likely Azerbaijan. Spelled differently by medieval authors of Arabic, Persian and Armenian origin due to their language peculiarities, such as Azerabadagan/Aderbayagjan/Aderbigan,etc., the name Azerbaijan consists of four Turkic words : Azerbaijan → Az + Er ‘a man’+ Bay ‘ wealthy; beg’ + Qan/Jan ‘a frequent ending component of some old Turkic names of individuals – Boguqan, Erkligqan, Jaglaqarqan, Ogadajqan, Qaraqan, Sucatiqan and places, such as  Tafqan, Barsgan/Barskhan, most likely another version of the word Khan ‘a ruler’. Several centuries later, the ending Qan was transformed into Jan – Azerbaijan, and have been in use since then as such with the same meaning – “The land of the wealthy Az people, i.e Azeri.” In his commentary to Hudud al AlamMinorsky states: “A name beginning with an L is unlikely in Turkish; therefore …must be further improved into al-Aziyya. Already in his earlier Semirechye,15, and Die altturkischen Inschriften,18 Barthold compared this name with the one found in the Orkhon inscriptions where the combination Az budun occurs in two different meanings: “a small people” and “the people of Az“.  This people of Az must be without any doubts the name of the Turkic tribe Az, mentioned by Herodotus as an Asian tribe that was used to name the whole continent of Asia. This ancient Turkic tribe still exists  in the name of nations – Azerbaijani; Kirghiz ↔ Kırqız → Kirq/Qırx ‘forty’ + Az, who are, in fact, the descendants of this ancient nation of Az, as well as tribes: Tukhs → Tukh/Tokh/Toq ‘ well fed, replete’ + Az; numerous Turkic toponyms, hydronyms, lands and countries – Azerbaijan, Kirqizistan;  town Azov in Russia, situated on the Don river within close proximity of the Sea of Azov: Azov→ Az Ov↔Ev ‘a home’, translated as ‘ the home of Azes‘; cities in Azerbaijan Republic: Azgyr → Az + Gyr ‘ destroy’,meaning ‘ Azes who destroy’; Aza; Yukhary Aza; Azaru → Az + Er/Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘an Az man’, i.e  an Azeri; Azix ‘ we are Azes’,  Astara → As + Tara ‘ disperse’, meaning ‘ Azes disperse’; previously Turkic territories currently under Russian rule,such as city  Astrakhan → As/Az + Tarkhan ‘a title of the khan’, ‘ a ruler’; Nizhniye Azy – in Siberia. – Ed.]
  • Discourse on the Kimak Country and its towns…In this country there is only one town but many tribes. Its people live in felt-huts and both in summer and winter wander along the grazing grounds, waters, and meadows. Their commodities are sable-martens and sheep. Their food in summer is milk, and in winter preserved meat. Whenever there is peace between them and the Ghuz, they go in winter towards the Ghuz. The king of the Kimak is called khaqan. 1.Andar az Khifchaq, a country of the Kimak of which the inhabitants resemble the Ghuz in some (of their) customs. 2.Q.rq.rkhan, another district of the Kimak, of which the inhabitants have the customs of the Khirkhiz.
  • Discourse on the Ghuz Country [The Ghuz country is Oghuz country, the land of the Oghuz Turks. -Ed]…Both in summer and winter they wander along the pasture-lands and grazing-grounds. Their wealth is in horses, cows, sheep, arms, and game in small quantities. Among them merchants are very numerous. And whatever the Ghuz, or the merchants, possess of good or wonderful is the object of veneration by the Ghuz. (The Ghuz) greatly esteem the physicians and whenever they seem them, venerate them, and these doctors have command over their lives and property. The Ghuz have no towns, but the people owning felt-huts are very numerous. They possess arms and implements and are courageous and daring in war. They continually make inroads into the lands of Islam, whatever place be on the way, and (then) strike, plunder, and retreat as quickly as possible. Each of their tribes has a (separate) chief on account of their discords with each other.
  • Discourse on the Kifchakh Country…The Khifchaks are a clan which, having separated from the Kimak, has settled down in these parts, but the Kifchakh are more wicked than the Kimak. Their king is (appointed) on behalf of the Kimak.
  • Discourse on the Majghari Country [Majghari, or Majars are modern Hungarians. -Ed]…This country has some 20,000 men who take the field with their king. The king of this country is called Jula… Their food is fish and they live on it. They are very rich people but base. This country possesses many trees and running waters. The (people) are good-looking and awe-inspiring. The Majghari are at war with all the infidels living around them and are (usually) victorious.
  • Discourse on the Country of Khorasan and its towns.…Asbuzar has four towns: Kavazhan, Araskan, Kuzhd, Jarashan, all four within the distance of 6 farsangs; the locality is pleasant and the inhabitants are Kharijites, and warlike. In this district there are numerous and difficult mountains.[The name Kharijit is derived from two Turkic words: Khar ‘black’ + Ijit→Igit ‘a warrior‘, meaning ‘ black warrior, or a dark skinned warrior’. The Turkic origin of the tribe name automatically means that this tribe of Kharijites is a Turkic one. Ed.] … 69.Tukharistan, a pleasant province consisting mostly of mountains. In its steppes live the Khallukh Turks. [The Turkic word Tukharistan is based on Tukh ‘satiated,full’ + Ar/Ər ‘a man’ + Persian ending –Istan ‘place of, country’, meaning ‘the land of happy men’. -Ed] 
  • Discourse on the Region of Transoxianan Marches and its towns…11. The K.njina Turks, a tribe of few men living in the mountains between Khuttalan and Chaghaniyan and established in a valley...[K.njina, or Kenjin is a combination of two Turkic words Kenj↔Gənc ‘young’ + In↔Yin ‘a body’, meaning ‘a young body’.-Ed]
  • Discourse on the Country of the Inner Bulghars…The people are courageous, warlike, and terror-inspiring. Their nature resembles that of the Turks living near the Khazar country. The Inner Bulghars are at war with all the Rus, but carry on commerce with all those who live around them. They posses sheeps, arms, and implements of war. [Inner Bulghars were a Turkic tribe, mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as such. The Turkic word Bulghar is composed of two Turkic words Bulgh↔Bulğ ‘to stir up rebellion, to create havoc’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘rebellious people. Ed]
  • Discourse on the Country of Rum, its provinces and towns…18.Bulghari, is the name of a people living on the mountain Bulghari to the north-west of Rum. They are infidels. They too are Rumi, but are perpetually at war with the other Rumis. These Bulghari are mountaineers, possessing fields and great numbers of cattle. [Bulghars were a Turkic tribe, mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as such. The Turkic word Bulghar is composed of two Turkic words Bulgh↔Bulğ ‘to stir up rebellion, to create havoc’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘rebellious people. Ed]
  • Discourse on the Country of Mirvät. [The name of the country Mirvät is of Turkic origin. The word Mirvät↔Mirvət which is frequently used nowadays in Azerbaijan Republic as a proper male name, means ‘mercy, justice’.-Ed]...They are Christians and speak two languages: Arabic and Rumi. They dress like the Arabs. They are on friendly terms with the Turks and the Rum. They own tents and felt-huts. [Most likely, the inhabitants of Mirvät were Bulghars, mixed with Arabs. The country of Rum was too vast and populated by numerous nations during that period of time. Therefore, Rumi language was any language used by any nation, who lived in Rum and called Rumi. It is possible that by Rumi language the author of this opus meant the language of Bulghars, who lived in tents and felt-huts just like most Turks of that time. -Ed].
  • Discourse on the Country of the Khazarian Pechenegs. East of it is the mountain of the Khazars; south of it, are the Alans; west of it, is the Gurz Sea; north of it, are the Mirvat. These people were formerly a group of the Pecheneg Turks; they came here, took the country by conquest, and settled down in it. They own felt-huts and tents, cattle, and sheep.
  • Discourse on the Country of Burtas [read: Bulghar!]. East and south of it are the Ghuz; west of it, the river Atil; north of it, the Pecheneg country. The people are Muslims and have a particular language. The king is called Mus. They own tents and felt-tents and are divided into three hordes: Barchula (spelt: B.hdwla), Ishkil, and B.lkar. They are all at war with each other but if an enemy appears they become reconciled.