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Hudud al-Alam – The Regions of the World.( A Persian Geography 372 A.H. – 982 A.D.) Compiled in year of 982 and translated by V. Minorsky. 1937. London.

  • The Earth is round as a sphere and the firmament enfolds it turning on two poles, of which the one is the North Pole and the other the South Pole[ Up until the XVII c. the Western scientists were persecuted by Catholic Church for daring to say that Earth was spherical by form and forcing everybody believe that the Earth was flat and the center of the Universe, while it was a widely accepted fact by everyone in the East of the X c.- Ed.]
  • Discourse on the disposition of the Seas and Gulfs. The first is the Green Sea, which we have named the Eastern Ocean. Its extension, so far as it is known, is from the extreme limit of cultivationin the south down to the Equator, the island Waqwaq, the lands of Waqwaq, the country of Chinistan, and the confines of the lands of the Toghusghuz and Kirkhiz[The name of Toghusghuz is reflected in the old Turkic runic scripts as 𐰍 𐰔 ł 𐰴 𐰔 ł 𐱃 , spelled as Toqzuqz. It is a Turkic word, meaning ‘nine Oguzes‘: Toqz→ Doqquz ‘nine’ + Uqz ‘Oquz’. Kirkhiz, or 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰔 in Turkic runic script, spelled as Kirqz is the name of the Turkic nation that still exists, unlike Toghusghuz, and populates the country Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia nowadays. It is very important to note that both Toghuzghuz and Kirkhiz contain the Turkic word Uz/Iz/Az. This is the name of the ancient Turkic nation Az/As – 𐰔 in Turkic runic script, first mentioned in Herodotus, and spread from Azerbaijan to Central Asia. The word Oghuz,  spelled as Uqz → 𐰍 𐰔 ł  in Turkic runic script, is comprised of two Turkic words:  Ogh/Uq ‘an arrow’ 𐰍 ł  + Z ‘Az’ 𐰔 , i.e ‘Az with arrow’. The name Kirkhiz consists of two parts: Kirkh ↔ Kirq ‘forty’ 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴 + Iz ↔ Az 𐰔 ‘ the name of the Turkic nation Az ‘, meaning ‘forty Azes‘. -Ed]
  • Another is the Sea of the Khazars.[Also known as Caspian sea, Khazar Sea was named as such to honor the Turkic nation Khazars, that used to live at the shore of this sea. – Ed.] Its eastern side is a desert adjoining the Ghuz and Kwarazm. Its northern side the Ghuz and some of the Khazars. Its western side adjoins the towns of the Khazars and Adharbadhagan [Azerbaijan Republic -Ed]. Its southern side adjoins the towns of Gilan, Daylaman, Tabaristan, and Gurgan.
  • Another sea is that of the Georgians and it is called Bontos (Black sea). Its eastern limit is formed by the confines of the Alans; its northern limit is formed by the places the Pechenegs, the Khazars, the Mirvats, the Inner Bulghars, and the Saqlabs: its western limit is the country of Burjans; on its southern limit lies the country of Rum.
  • Another sea that of Khwarazm which is situated  at a distance of 40 farsangs in the north-western direction from (the town of) Khwarazm. All round it are the places of the Ghuz.  [The word Ghuz, or Oghuz in Turkic runic script is spelled as Uqz → 𐰍 𐰔 ł, which means Uq ‘an arrow’ 𐰍 ł  + Z ‘the name of the Turkic nation Az‘ 𐰔 ,i.e ‘Az with arrow’.-Ed]
  • The lakes which are salt are eleven…The second is the lake Kabudhan in Armenia… In the middle of this lake is the village Kabudhan and this lake is called after it. [The lake Kabudhan,also known as Lake Urmiyah, is located in modern Southern Azerbaijan, currently situated in Iran.-Ed].Then another mountain is at the farthest limit of the Toghuz-ghuz Turks where they adjoin China.Its length is 4 farsangs and it is called Tafqan.
  • And also in the neighbourhood of Tafqan, in the Toghuzghuz  country, a mountain shoots off in a western direction between the Toghughuz, the Yaghma, and various encampments until it joins the mountain Manisa. In the neighborhood of the river Khulandghun this mountain is called Ighraj-Art, and each part of this mountain has many names, because every part of these mountains is called by the name of the region, or by that of the town which is nearest to it.
  • Another mountain shoots off from the beginning of the Toghuzghuz frontier in the neighbourhood of the lake Issi-Kül[The Turkic name of Issi-Kul means ‘a warm lake’ → Issi ‘warm’ + Kul/Göl ‘lake’.-Ed]. It continues till the end of the Tukhs and the beginning of the Khallukh frontier, then it bends, and a branch separates from it into the land of the Kirkhiz tribe. This mountain is called Tulas
  • Another mountain lies in the northern parts, between the frontier of the Kimak and the beginning of the of the Khirkhiz. It starts  from the frontier of Kimak and stretches eastwards to the frontier of the Khirkhiz. Then it follows a northern direction till where the inhabited part of the world finishes in the north. In the northern region this mountain is called by the Kimak, K.ndav.r-baghi (Kundavar, Kanda’ur-taghi)[Barthold V.V., a Russian orientalist, read this word K.ndav.r-baghi  as Kendir which is a Turkic word that has two meanings: 1.hemp; 2.rope. Most likely translation of this word Kendir-taghi will be ‘ a hemp mountain’. Nowadays, the word Kendir in a number of Turkic languages means ‘a rope’. This definition is actually a derivative from ‘hemp’, as best ropes were made from hemp. -Ed.]
  • Another small mountain situated in the province of Adharbadhagan near Ardabil, is called Sabalan. (spelt: Sabilan). [There are numerous misspellings in the names of geographical places throughout the book, such as Adharbadhagan,Sabilan,etc. A letter -d- instead of z- in the name of Adharbadhagan → Azerbaijan is explained by the phonetic peculiarity of the Arabic letter Ḍād, or ṣ́ād (ض) that can be pronounced -dz-, as well as just d or –zSabalan is the Savalan mountain in the Sourthern Azerbaijan, that was spelled as Sabilan by the original author of the work.The origin of the mountain name is Turkic: Savalan/Sabalan → Sav/Sab ‘a word, a speech, news’ + Alan ‘taking’, means ‘taking the floor, grabbing attention’ – Ed]
  • Another mountain lies in the districts of Armenia[Armenia, or Arminiya was a province of Persia which was situated at the territory, currently known as Southern Azerbaijan in Iran. The location of Armenia, or Arminiya in Persia was thousand miles away from the modern location of Republic of Armenia, and had nothing to do with the latter.-Ed]. It starts from Takrit in Iraq, where it is called Kuh-i-Barimma,and so it goes between the frontiers of Armenia and Adharbadhagan until it reaches the limits of Barda.
  • In the same region are two other mountains separate from each other. The higher one is called Harith. [This mountain modern Armenians call Ararat, and Turks as Agri-Dag. -Ed.]…The other mountain, called Huwayrith, is similar to Harith but smaller than it.
  • Another river is Jayhun [From a Turkic word Jayhun → Jeyhun → Ceyhun, this river was later renamed into Amu-Darya river. – Ed.] which rises from the region of Vakhan and follows the frontier between the limits of Bolor and those of Shaknan, (which is) of Vakhan,down to the limits of Khuttalan, Tukharistan, Balkh, Chaghaniyan, Jhorasan, and Transoxiana, down to the limits of Khwarazm, to fall into the sea of Kwarazm.
  • The Inhabited Lands of the world consist of fifty-one countries, of which five lie south of the Equator,viz., Zaba, Zangistan, Habasha, Buja, and Nuba. One western country, the Sudan, partly belongs to the north and partly to the south, as the Equator traverse it. Forty-five lie in the northern side of the Inhabited Quarter, viz., China, Tibet, Hindustan, Sind, Khorasan with its Marches, Transoxiana with its Marches, Kirman, Pars, the desert of Kargas-kuh,(spelt: Karas-kuh), Daylaman, Khuzistan, the province of Jibal, Iraq, the lands of the Arabs, Jazira, Adharbadhagan, Syria, Egypt, Maghrib, Spain, Rum, the Sarir, the Alan, the Khazar, the Saqlab, the Khazarian Pechenegs, the M.rvat, the Inner Bulghar, the Rus, the Majghari, the N.nd.r, the Turkish Pechenegs, the B.radas, the Burtas, the Khifjaq, the Ghuz, the Kimak, the Chigil, the Tukhs, the Khallukh, the Yaghma, the Toghuzghuz, and the Khirkhiz. Each of these countries is divided into provinces, and in each of the latter there are numerous towns. [Out of 51 known countries in the X c. 19 were Turkic, belonging to various Turkic nations of that time.-Ed]
  • Khamchu (Kan-chou), half of which is owned by the Chinese and the other half by the Tibetians. A perpetual war goes on between them. They are idolaters, and their government is on behalf of the Khaqan of Tibet. [Khamchu↔Qamchi/Qamçı is a Turkic word that means ‘ whip’. The ruler of that territory was Khaqan -a Turkic word, meaning ‘ a ruler, a king ‘.-Ed]
  •  Kucha is situated on the frontier and belongs to China, but constantly the Toghughuz raid the inhabitants and loot them. [The name Kucha, mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as Küçə, an Uygur town in the Eastern Turkestan, is of Turkic origin, meaning ‘a street’. As a loan word, it penetrated the Persian language and is still in use in the same meaning nowadays.-Ed]
  • Khotan is situated between two rivers. In its limits live wild people who are man-eaters. The commodities of the inhabitants are mostly raw silk. The king of Khotan lives in great state and calls himself ” Lord of the Turks and Tibetans“. [Khotan was mentioned both as a Turkic city by Mahmud al Kashgari in his book.-Ed].
  • Azr, a small town near Sarandib which serves as residence to the king of Sarandib[The name of the town Azr, or Azar/Azər was formed from two Turkic words Az ‘the name of the Turkic nation Az’ + R/Ar/Ər ‘a man, a warrior’. The Turkic origin of the name Sarandib is supported by the Turkic components of this word: Saran ‘miser’ + Dib ‘bottom’, meaning ‘ a bottom-dwelling miser’ -Ed]
  • The Bolorian (B.luri) Tibet, a province of Tibet adjoining the confines of Bolor. [It is highly likely that the word Bolor is  a Turkic word, construed from two Turkic words – Bol ‘numerous’ and Or ↔ Er → Ər ‘a man’. – Ed.] The people are chiefly merchants and live in tents and felt-huts.
  • N.zvan [Nizvani is a Sogdian word, stands for ‘passion’. – Ed.], a wealthy country of Tibet with many commodities. In this country there is a tribe called Mayul from which the kings of Tibet come. In (this province) two small villages are found of which the one is called  N.zvan and the other Muyul[The word Mayul is of Turkic origin, meaning ‘overripe’. -Ed.]
  • Ajayul [A Turkic word combining two Turkic words into a complex one Ajayul ↔ Aj/Ac ‘hungry’ + Ayul/Ayıl ‘spare; have a pity; favor’, meaning ‘favor the poor’. – Ed.], a place with pastures, meadows, and felt-huts of some Tibetans. When the Tubbat-khaqan dies and from the said tribe no one remains, the people elect a chief from among these Ajayul.
  • T.w.s.m.t, a land formerly held by the Chinese and now by the Tibetans. In it there are troops belonging to the Tubbatkhaqan.
  • Bals, K.ryan,V.j.khyan, B.rikha, J.n.khkath, Kunkra, Raykutiya, B.rniya, N.druf, D.stuya, M.th, small towns which formerly belonged to China, but now are held by the Tibetans. In them the Toghuzghuz are numerous.
  • Discourse on the Toghuzghuz Country and its towns. [Toghuzghuz is a Turkic word,consisting of Toghuz ↔ Doqquz ‘nine’ + Ghuz ↔ Oguz ‘the name of the Turkic tribe’. -Ed]. East of it is the country of China; south of it, some parts of Tibet and the Khallukh; west of it, some parts of the Kirkhiz; north of it, also the Khirkhiz extend along all the Toghuzghuz country. This country is the largest of the Turkish countries and originally the Toghuzughuz were the most numerous tribe…From their country comes much musk, as well as black, red, and striped foxes, furs of the grey squirrel, sable-marten, ermine, weasel, sabija, khutu-horns, and yaks.
  • 1.Jinanjkath(Chinanjkath, “Chinese town”, capital of the Toghuzghuz….2.Near it is the mountain T.fqan [Tafqan -Ed.], behind which are five villages: Kuzar.k, J.m.lkath, Panjikath, Barlugh, Jamghar...North of the Toghuzghuz is a steppe stretching between them and the Khirkhiz up to the country of the Kimak. 3.K.msighiya, a village between two mountains. 4.S.tkath, a small district with three villages. 5.Ark, a small town near the river Khuland-ghun, possessing plenty of fruit, except grapes. 6.K.rakhun, a village amid sands, possessing few amenities but many people. 7.The villages of Bek-Tegin consist of five villages belonging to the Soghdians. In them live ChristiansZoroastrians, and heathens. The locality is in the cold zone and is surrounded by mountains. 8.Kum.s-Art, a village on a mountain. Its people are hunters. 9.Kh.mud, a locality with meadows and grazing grounds, with tents and felt-huts of the Toghuzghuz. The people own sheep. 10.J.mlikath, a large village of which the chief is called Yabghu (spelt: Baighu). 11.T.nzagthArt, an earthen mountain and a stage for the merchants. 12.Mab.nj J.rabas, a stage at which a big river and plenty of grass are found. 13.B.lkh.mkan, a stage where formerly liver the Toghuzghuz and which is now desolate. 14.S.d.nk, a stage at which it snows and rains constantly. 15.S.h.k-Art, a stage.16.Irguzgukath, a stage with pasture lands and springs. 17.Ighraj-Art, a stage which is never free from snow.
  • Discourse on the Country of the “Yaghma” and its towns. [Yaghma was the name of the Turkic country after the Turkic tribe, populated it at that time. The word Yaghma ↔ Yağma is comprised of two Turkic words: Yagh/Yağ ‘approach’ + Ma ‘an affix of negation’, meaning ‘ do not approach’.-Ed]. East of it is the Toghuzghuz country, south of it, the river Khulandghun which flows into the Kucha river; west of it are the Khallukh borders. Iin this country there is but little agriculture, it produces many furs and in it much game is found. their wealth is in horses and ship…1.Kashghar belongs to Chinistan but situated on the frontier between the YaghmaTibet, the Khirkhiz, and China. The chiefs of Khashgar in the days of old were from the Khallukh, or from the Yaghma. 2.Artuj (spelt: B.rtuj) was a populous village of the Yaghma, but snakes grew numerous the people abandoned the village. 3.Khirm.ki, a large village. (The people) are Artuzians(spelt – Bartuji).
  • Discourse on the Khirkhiz Country[Kirkhiz, or 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰔 in Turkic runic script, spelled as Kirqz, is the name of the Turkic nation that has been inhabiting the country Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia as of today.  The name Kirkhiz consists of two parts: Kirkh ↔ Kirq ‘forty’ 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴 + Iz ↔ Az 𐰔 ‘ the name of the Turkic nation Az ‘, meaning ‘forty Azes‘. -Ed] East of this country is the country of China and the Eastern Ocean; south of it, the Toghuzghuz borders and some parts of the Khallukh; west of it, (parts) of the Kilmak country; (north of it, parts) of the Uninhabited Lands of the North… where people cannot live on account of the intensity of cold. From this country are brought in great quantities musk, furs, khadang-wood, khalanj-wood, and knife-handles made of khutu. Their king is called Khirkhiz-khaqan…2.This side of the Furi there is a town K.m.jkath where the Khirkhiz -khaqan lives…Except at the residence of the khaqan, no class of the Khirkhiz has any villages or towns at all.
  • Discourse on the Khallukh Country and its towns.[The Turkic name Khallukh↔ Xallığ is a composition of two words: Khal/Xal ‘a mole, spot’ + Lukh/Lığ ‘a Turkic affix,denoting abundance’, meaning ‘spotty, dappled, blotched’. The same word Khal/Xal is observed in the names of places: a village Khalkhal in the cognominal municipality Khalkhal in Azerbaijan Republic, city of Khalkhal in Ardebil province of Southern Azerbaijan in Iran.-Ed]. East of it are some parts of Tibet and the borders of the Yaghma and the Toghuzghuz; south of it, some parts of the Yaghma and the country of Transoxiana; west of it, the borders of the Ghuz; north of it, the borders of the TukhsChigil, and Toghuzghuz. This is a prosperous country, the most pleasant of the Turkish lands. It possesses running waters and a moderate climate. From it come different furs….The country possesses towns and villages…1.Kulan, a small district adjasent to the Muslim world. In it agriculture is practised. 2.Mirki, a village inhabited by the Khallukh and also visited by merchants. Between these two villages there are three Khallukh tribes called: Bistan, Khaym, and B.rish. 3.Nun-Kat was a town near the mountain Urun-Arj, but now it is desolate and is a thieves’ haunt. It is a stage (on the road) and a few felt-huts of the Khallukh are found there. 4.Gh.nk.sir, a large village with numerous Khallukh tribes. It is a prosperous place.5.Tuzun-Bulagh, a village with fields,running waters,and amenities…6.By Tuzun-Ar.j is the lake Tuz-Kul, wherefrom seven tribes of the Khallukh procure fro themselves salt. 7.Kukyal, Atlaligh, Lul.gh are three prosperous and pleasant villages, situated on the slope of a mountain; their princes were Yabghu’s brothers. 8.Uzkath and M.ljkath, two villages situated on the slope of a mountain, prosperous and pleasant, which belong to Jabghu’s kingdom. 9.Kirminkath, in which live a few Khallukh, called L.ban. It is a large village where merchants from everywhere reside. 10.Tun.l and Talkh.za, two villages amidst the mountains, on the frontier between the Chigil and Khallukh, near the lake Issi-kul (spelt: Iskul). The inhabitants are warlike, courageous, and valiant. 11.Barskhan, a town on the bank of the lake, prosperous and pleasant. Its prince is a Khallukh, but the (inhabitants) are devoted to the Toghuzghuz. 12.Jamgh.r, a small borough in the Khallukh country, on the dge of the desert…In it live some 200 tribes of men and to it belongs a separate district. 13.B.njul lies in the country of the Khallukh, but formerly its king was on behalf of the Toghuzghuz, and now is occupied by the Khirkhiz. 14.Aq.raq.r, a town (with) a numerous population, situated between a mountain and a river. 15.Uj lies on a mountain. There are some 200 men in it.
  • Discourse on the Chigil Country. [The country name Chigil was established in honor of the Turkic tribe Chigil, inhabiting the same country. The Turkic word Chigil↔Çigil means ‘a commoner, plebian’.-Ed]. It is a country which originally belongs to the Khallukh, but it is a country (with) a numerous population. East and south of it are the limits of the Tukhs; north of it, the Kirkhiz country. And whatever comes from the Khallukh and Khirkhiz countries is also produced in (that of the ) Chigil. The latter possess few pleasant towns and villages. Their wealth is in cows, sheep, and horses. Some of them worship the Sun and the stars. They are good-natured people, sociable and kind, and their king is one of themselves. 1.Sikul, a large town on the frontier between the Khallukh and the Chigil, close to the Muslim world. It is a prosperous and pleasant place where merchants reside.
  • Discourse on the Tukhs  [Tukhs → Tukh/Tokh ‘ well fed, replete, wealthy’ + Az ‘the name of the Turkic tribe Az’ , meaning ‘ wealthy Az people’.- Ed]  Country and its towns. East of it are the Chigil limits; south of it, the Khallukh and their mountainous haunts; west of it, a group of Khirkhiz; north of it, the Chigil. This country is much more pleasant than (that of) Chigil. From it comes musk and various furs. Their wealth is in  horses, sheep, furs, tents, and felt-huts. In winter and summer they wander along pasture-lands, grazing-grounds, and meadows. 1.Lazina and F.rakiya [Frakiya is ancient Thrace, described by Herodotus. – Ed.], two clans of Tukhs, each of which possess a small country, and there are two villages called after these two tribes.  [The correct spelling of Lazina is Al-Aziya in Arabic manner, or Aziya in Turkic. The country of this Az clan was most likely Azerbaijan. Spelled differently by medieval authors of Arabic, Persian and Armenian origin due to their language peculiarities, such as Azerabadagan/Aderbayagjan/Aderbigan,etc., the name Azerbaijan consists of four Turkic words : Azerbaijan → Az + Er ‘a man’+ Bay ‘ wealthy; beg’ + Qan/Jan ‘a frequent ending component of some old Turkic names of individuals – Boguqan, Erkligqan, Jaglaqarqan, Ogadajqan, Qaraqan, Sucatiqan and places,such as  Tafqan, Barsgan/Barskhan, most likely another version of the word Khan ‘a ruler’. Several centuries later, the ending Qan was transformed into Jan – Azerbaijan, and have been in use since then as such with the same meaning – “The land of the wealthy Az people, i.e Azeri.” In his commentary to Hudud al AlamMinorsky states: “A name beginning with an L is unlikely in Turkish; therefore …must be further improved into al-Aziyya. Already in his earlier Semirechye,15, and Die altturkischen Inschriften,18 Barthold compared this name with the one found in the Orkhon inscriptions where the combination Az budun occurs in two different meanings: “a small people” and “the people of Az“.  This people of Az must be without any doubts the name of the Turkic tribe Az, mentioned by Herodotus as an Asian tribe that was used to name the whole continent of Asia. This ancient Turkic tribe still exists  in the name of nations – Azerbaijani; Kirghiz ↔ Kırqız → Kirq/Qırx ‘forty’ + Az, who are, in fact, the descendants of this ancient nation of Az, as well as tribes: Tukhs → Tukh/Tokh‘ wealthy, replete’ + Az; numerous Turkic toponyms, lands and countries – Azerbaijan, Kirqizistan; town Azov in Russia, situated on the Don river within close proximity of the Sea of Azov: Azov→ Az Ov↔Ev ‘a home’, translated as ‘ the home of Azes‘; cities in Azerbaijan RepublicAzgyr → Az + Gyr/Qır ‘ destroy’,meaning ‘ Azes who destroy’; Aza; Yukhary Aza; Azaru → Az + Ar/Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘an Az man’, i.e  an Azeri; Azix ‘ we are Azes’,  Astara → As + Tara ‘ disperse’, meaning ‘ Azes disperse’; previously Turkic territories currently under Russian rule, such as city Astrakhan → As/Az + Tarkhan ‘a title of the khan, a king,a ruler’. This Turkic city was established in year of 1122 by a Khazar king As-TarkhanNizhniye Azy – a town in Siberia, Russia. – Ed.] 2.Suyab, a large village from which 20,000 men come forth. 3.Bigliligh ( “home of the Beg’s men”), a large village, called in Sogdian S.m.kna. Its prince is called Y.nalb.rr.kin (Yinal-beg-tegin). 3,000 men take the field with him. 4.Urkath, situated between two villages of the Tukhs. Few people live in it but (the place) is pleasant and the inhabitants rich. 
  • Discourse on the Kimak Country and its towns. [Kimak is a Turkic word, and consists of two lexical constituents: Kim↔Qum ‘wave’ + Ak↔Ax ‘raid, invade’, meaning ‘wave of raids’. The Kumak country was inhabited by Kumak, a Turkic nation, famous for their numerous raids onto neighbors, mostly Rus and Slavs. Known as Kumyk nowadays, they currently populate Caucasian parts of Russia – DaghestanChechnya. -Ed]. East of this country lives a race of Khirkhiz; south of it are the rivers Artush, and Atil [Turkic names of rivers Artush and Atil in Russia , currently known as Irtysh and Volga. -Ed]; west of it, some of the Khifchakh and some of the Northern Uninhabited Lands; its north lies in those northern parts where men cannot live. In this country there is only one town but many tribes. Its people live in felt-huts and both in summer and winter wander along the grazing grounds, waters, and meadows. Their commodities are sable-martens and sheep. Their food in summer is milk, and in winter preserved meat. Whenever there is peace between them and the Ghuz, they go in winter towards the Ghuz. The king of the Kimak is called khaqan. 1.Andar az Khifchaq, a country of the Kimak of which the inhabitants resemble the Ghuz in some (of their) customs. 2.Q.rq.rkhan, another district of the Kimak, of which the inhabitants have the customs of the Khirkhiz. 3.Y.ghsun Yasu, another district of the Kimak, between the rivers Atil and Irtish, which has more pleasant people and more settled conditions. 4.Namakiya, a town in Kimak which is the Khaqan’s residence during summer. Between this town and Taraz (spelt: T.rar) there is a distance of eighty days for a horseman travelling at speed. 5.Dih-i-chub, a village on the bank of the river. In summer numerous people (gather) in it.
  • Discourse on the Ghuz Country[Ghuz, or Oghuz is a well-known name of the Turkic tribe. -Ed]. East of this country is the Ghuz desert and the towns of Transoxiana; south of it, some parts of the same desert, as well as the Khazar sea; west and north of it, the river Atil.
  • Discourse on the Turkish Pechenegs. [The Turkic word Pecheneg is mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as Bechanag↔Beçənək as the name of the Turkic tribe.The word Pecheneg↔Beçənək most likely has two Turkic components: Peche/Beçə →Biçə ‘small’ + Nək→Nəng ‘fortune, riches’, meaning ‘a man of small means’.-Ed]. East of this country are the limits of the Ghuz; south of it, those of the Burtas and Baradhas; west of it, those of the Majghari and the Rus; north of it, (the river) Rutha. This country in all respects resembles (that of) the Kimak and is at war with all its neighbors. The (Pechenegs) have no towns; their chief is one of themselves.
  • Discourse on the Khifchakh Country. [The Turkic name of the country Khifchakh↔Kipchak, inhabited by cognominal people left their trace in the name of the villages, such as a village Kipchak in Crimea, currently occupied by Russia; a small village in Turkmenistan – Gypjak. This Turkic word Khifchakh↔Kipchak/Qıvçaq means ‘unfortunate, ill-fated’ and consists of two Turkic words Qıv ‘happiness’ + Çaq ‘ drop abruptly’.-Ed].The sourthern frontier of the Khifchakh marches with the Pechenegs, and all the rest marches with the Northern Uninhabited Lands where there is no living being.
  • Discourse on the Majghari Country [Majghari is a Turkic tribe that lived in cognominal country. The word Majghari is formed as a combination of two Turkic words : Majgh ↔ Mojak ‘a senior member of clergy, similar to archbishop in rank’ + Ar/Ər ‘a man’.-Ed]. East of it is a mountain; south of it, a tribe of Christians, called V.n.nd.r; west and north of  (the Majghari) are the districts of the Rus. This country has some 20,000 men who take the field with their king. The king of this country is called Jula. This country is 150 farsangs in breadth. In winter they stay on the bank of a river which separates them from the Rus.
  • Discourse on the Country of Khorasan and its towns. [The name of the country Khorasan is of pure Turkic origin. As a rule, this Turkic name also consists of two words: Khor/Xor ‘disdainful’ + Asan ‘hanging’, meaning ‘the place where disdainful people are punished by hanging’.-Ed]. It is a country eact of which is Hindustan; south of it, some of its (own) Marches and some parts of desert of Kargaskuh; west of it, the districts of Gurgan and the limits of the Ghuz; north of it , the river Jayhun….This country produces horses and its people are warlike. It is the gate of Turkistan… 8.Jarmagan, Sibinakan, Khujan, Ravini [The names of these places have Turkic origin, such as Jarmagan ↔ Yarmaqan↔ Ərmağan ‘ a gift ‘; Sibinakan → Sabina‘ a female name ‘ + kan/qan ‘ a typical ending in the Turkic proper names’; Khujan ↔ Khoju ‘a name of the city in Turkestan‘ – Ed.],  prosperous boroughs with many fields, situated amidst hills and plains…9.Nasa, a very pleasant town situated at the foot of the mountains, between the mountain and the desert… 10.Bavard is situated (midway) between the mountains and the desert…11. Tus [A Turkic word Tus ↔ Duz ‘salt’ -Ed.], a district in which are situated the boroughs, such as Tavaran [Tavaran is a Turkic word, derived from Tavar ‘wealth, merchandise’ + An ‘an affix,denoting plurality’, meaning ‘a lot of wealth, merchandise’.- Ed.]Nauqan [Possibly, Muqan of Turkic origin. -Ed.]Buzdighur [From a Turkic word Buz ‘Ice’ + Dighur → Diyar ‘region’ -Ed.]RayaganB.nvadha…13.TurshizKundur [This Turkic complex word has two components: Kundur → Kun/Kün/Gün ‘Sun‘ + Dur ‘Rise, meaning ‘sunrise’. -Ed.], B.nabidKuri [Also a Turkic word, the word Kuri originated from KurGur ‘powerful’. -Ed.], boroughs belonging to Kuhistan and Nishapur, with numerous fields…24.Badhghis, a prosperous and very pleasant place with some 300 villages. [According to MinorskyBadhghis was the residence of Nizak Tarkhan, the famous Turkic opponent of the Arabs. The word Badhghis is also the combination of two Turkic words: Badhghis → Badh/Bat ‘fast,soon’ + Ghis/Qiz ‘ get hot’, meaning ‘the place that warms up fast’. -Ed.] 25.Katun [A Turkic word Katun with variations Khatun  or Qatun, meaning ‘a high-class lady, a queen’, was mentioned as a Turkic city by Mahmud al Kashgari in his work “Diwanu Lugat at-Turk” .-Ed] … 29.Asbuzar has four towns: Kavazhan, Araskan, Kuzhd, Jarashan, all four within the distance of 6 farsangs; the locality is pleasant and the inhabitants are Kharijites, and warlike. In this district there are numerous and difficult mountains. [The name of the province Asbuzar is likely of Turkic origin: As/Az ‘a little’ + Buz ‘ice’ + Ar/Əri ‘ melt’, meaning ‘a place where ice barely melts’. The towns Kavazhan and Jarashan contain a combination of two Turkic words: Kav→Kaya/Qaya ‘ a rock, a small mountain’ + Ashan ‘crossing over’; Jar ‘a ravine’+ Ashan ‘crossing over’. Another town Araskan derives its possible Turkic origin from two words – Aras/Ara ‘middle,center’ +  kan→kand/kənd ‘a town ; a village’, meaning ‘a central town’. Kuzhd is most likely a Turkic word Kuzat/Küzət, which is also a proper name and means ‘be watchful’. The name Kharijit is derived from two Turkic words: Khar ‘black’ + Ijit→Igit ‘a warrior‘, meaning ‘ black warrior, or a dark skinned warrior’. The Turkic origin of the tribe name automatically means that this tribe of Kharijites is a Turkic one. -Ed.] … 44.Dandanaqan, a borough within a wall which is some 500 paces long. It lies on the steppe. Outside it is a caravan station. [The Turkic name Dandanaqan is a junction of  two Turkic words –Dandan ↔ Dən-dən ‘prominently,separately’ + Aqan→Axan ‘ flowing; arriving suddenly’, meaning ‘ a place where visitors arrive suddenly in groups’.-Ed.]…46. Guzganan [A typical Turkic name Guzganan, composed of two Turkic words Guz↔ Oquz ‘the name of the Turkic tribe’+ Ganan/Qanan ‘satisfying, making dreams come true’, meaning ‘the place where Oguzes create happiness’- Ed.], a very prosperous and pleasant province. Justice, equity, and security reign there. On the east, this province marches with the limits of Balkh and Tukharistan down to the limits of Bamiyan; on the south, with the end of the confines of Ghur and the boundary of Bust; on the west, with the limits of Garchistan and (its) chief place Bashin, down to the limits of Marv; on the north, with the limits of the river Jayhun…53.Talaqan lies on the frontier of Guzganan and belongs to its king. It is a very pleasant town which produces much wine and felt. [The Turkic name of the town Talaqan is a combination of two Turkic words: Tala ‘steppe, prairie’ + Qan ‘an ending component of Turkic proper and geographic names.- Ed.]...58.Anbir, capital of Guzganan and a good and prosperous town, the residence of merchants and the emporium of Balkh [The Turkic name of the Anbir ↔ Ənbir, having two words An/Ən ‘the most’ + Bir ‘first’, means ‘the foremost’ – Ed.]…60. Ushburqan, a town situated on a steppe on the high road. It abounds in amenities and has running waters. [Ushburqan proceeds from Turkic words Ush↔Üç ‘three’ + Burqan ‘idol, prophet’, meaning ‘three prophets’.-Ed.]…65. Aziv, a town at the end of the province of Guzganan. [The name of this town Aziv has another variant – Sea of Azov, and both carry a combination of two Turkic words: Aziv/Azov → Az ‘the name of the Turkic tribe’ + Iv/Ov→Ev ‘home, a place of habitation’. Similar construction is in the name of the city Kiev that is the capital of Ukraine nowadays: Ki/Kü ‘glorious’ + Ev ‘, meaning ‘the glorious place’, as well as in the name of the capital of modern Moldova Republic – Kishinev : Kishin↔ Kishinin ‘a man’s’ + Ev ‘home’, meaning ‘ a man’s home’ in Turkic.The city of Kiev was established by Khazars, a Turkic tribe that converted into Judaism and first populated the shore of the Caspian Sea, known also as Khazar Sea among modern Turkic nations, such as Azerbaijanis. – Ed]…67.Balkh, a large and flourishing town which was formerly the residence of the Sasanian kings. [In Turkic Balkh, or Balıq means ‘ city’. – Ed]…69.Tukharistan, a pleasant province consisting mostly of mountains. In its steppes live the Khallukh Turks. [The Turkic word Tukharistan is based on Tukh ‘satiated,full’ + Ar/Ər ‘a man’ + Persian ending –Istan ‘place of, country’, meaning ‘the land of happy men’. -Ed]…71. Sakalkand, a borough with much cultivation, lying in the mountains. It is a place of poor people. [A combination of three Turkic words Sak/Sağ ‘right’ + Al/Əl ‘arm’ + Kand/Kənd ‘town’, Sakalkand means ‘a town on the right side’. -Ed]. 72. Baghlan is like Sakalkand[Another Turkic word Baghlan means ‘shut, close’.-Ed]…76. Tayaqan, a town on the frontier between Tukharistan and Khuttalan. It is a place with much cultivation, lying at the foot of a mountain. [The word Tayaqan was formed from two Turkic words Tayaq ‘foundation,support’ + Qan ‘a typical Turkic ending component with the a variation –Kon, added to the names of the territories, including cities, towns. Means ‘settlement, place’. -Ed].
  • Discourse on the Region of Khorasanian Marches. East of this region lies Hindustan; south of it, the deserts of Sind and Kirman; west of it, the borders of Herat; north of it, the borders of GharchistanGuzganan, and Tukharistan…1. Ghur, a province amid mountains and rugged country. It has a king called Ghur-shah...[The king Ghur , and subsequently the province have their name derived from the Turkic word Gur/Kür, meaning ‘brave’. -Ed]...3.Taq, a borough with a strong fortress and a numerous population. [A Turkic word Taq means ‘mountain’. -Ed]. 4. Gash, a town with a prosperous and pleasant district. It has running waters and an agreeable climate, and is situated on the bank of the Hindhmand[Gash/Qaş means ‘bank of a river, coast’ in Turkic. -Ed]…10. Chalkan, a borough with running water; the majority of the inhabitants are weavers. [Chalkan – a combination of two Turkic words: Chal/Çal ‘roan’ + Kan/Qan – ‘a Turkic ending, denoting ‘a place’; meaning ‘ a place of roans’. -Ed]...22. In Ghaznin and in the limits of the boroughs which we enurerated, live the Khalaj Turks who possess many sheep…These Khalaj Turks are also numerous in the provinces of Balkh, Tukharistan, Bust, and Guzganan.  [Guzganan province gets the origins of its name from Turkic Guz ‘eye’ + Ganan/Qanan ‘ satisfied’, meaning ‘eyeful; visual feast; an eye candy’. -Ed.]
  • Discourse on the country Transoxiana and its towns…2.M.ghkan, Khujadak, Zandana, Bumkath, Madyamijkath, Kharghankath, boroughs with pulpits within the area of Bukhara[M.ghkan↔ Magkan/Mağqan is a Turkic word, formed from two words Mag/Mağ ‘the name of the ancient nation,that used to live in Media -present day Azerbaijan Republic‘ + Kan↔Qan ‘a typical ending in the names of Turkic places,towns,etc, indicating a settlement’, meaning ‘the place of Mages‘. The name Khujadak is a complex Turkic word, consisting of two words Khuja↔Qoca ‘old’ + Dak↔Dağ ‘a mountain’, meaning ‘an old mountain’. The Turkic name Kharghankath was formed from Kharghan↔ Qarqan ‘ravens’ + Kath ‘a city’, meaning ‘the city, full of ravens’. The word Kharghan is still in use in Uzbek language as Qarqan ‘ravens’. It’s important to point out that Uzbekistan Republic with dominating Uzbek language is situated at the territory, formerly known as Transoxiana. -Ed]. 4.Paykand, a borough with a thousand ribats…[A Turkic word Paykand has two lexical components: Pay ‘share,gift’ + Kand/Kənd ‘a city’, meaning ‘an imparted city’. -Ed].13. Samarqand, a large, prosperous, and very pleasant town…produces paper which is exported all over the world, and hemp cords…[Currently located in Uzbekistan Republic, the ancient city Samarqand has its Turkic name derived from two words: Samar↔Sumer ‘the name of the ancient people – Sumerians‘ + Qand/Kənd ‘a city, a town’, meaning ‘the city of Sumers‘. The word Sumer↔Şumər contains two Turkic words: Sum/Şum ‘plow ‘ + Er/Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘ a farmer, a man who plows’. Sumers were ancient civilization that first invented irrigation as an agricultural process. The first ruler of Sumer was Etana of Kish. The name translates into Turkic as Etana↔Etən/Edən ‘creator’, Kish ↔ Kishi ‘a man’.-Ed].38. Charqan, a prosperous borough also belonging to Surushna[Charqan is another Turkic word, composed of two Turkic words: Char↔Çar ‘a family’ + Qan ‘a typical ending in the names of Turkic places,towns,etc, indicating a settlement’, meaning ‘a family place’.-Ed]. 47.Akhsikath, the capital of Farghana lying amidst mountains and broken country and possessing many boroughs and villages...[Akhsikath is a combination of two Turkic words; Akhsi ↔ Yakhshi/Yaxşı ‘good’ + Kath/Kənd ‘a town’, meaning ‘a good town’.-Ed]. 48. Vathkath forms the frontier between Khujand and Farghana and is a borough with much cultivation…[Vathkath has two Turkic components: Vath↔ Uvut ‘invitation’ + Kath/Kənd ‘a town’, meaning ‘a hospitable town’.-Ed]. 55. Quba, a large town, the most flourishing in the district of Farghana. [The name of the town Quba has Turkic origin and means ‘light-brown’. The city and region with similar name Quba are also situated in Azerbaijan Republic. -Ed.]...58. Uzgand, a town on the frontier between Farghana and the Turks[Uzqand is a Turkic word, consisting of two Turkic elements: Uz ‘passage’ + Qand↔Kənd ‘a town’.-Ed]. Two rivers pass its outskirts, of which the one called T.bagh.r comes from Tibet and the other, Barskhan, comes from the Khallukh country…
  • Discourse on the Region of Transoxianan Marches and its towns…22.Kath, the capital of Khwarazm and the Gate of the Ghuz Turkistan. It is the emporium of the Turks, Turkistan, Transoxiana, and the Khazar[The word Kath/Kand/Qand↔Kənd, frequently met in the names of the Transoxianian and other Turkic towns and cities, meant ‘a city, town’, though nowadays, its meaning is downgraded to ‘a village’. -Ed.]
  • Discourse on the Country of Sind and its towns. East of this country is the river Mihran; south of it, the Great Sea; west of it, the province Kirman; north of it is a desert adjacent to the Marches of Khorasan…6. Tiz is the first town of Sind, situated on the coast of the Great Sea [Tiz is a Turkic word,literally meaning ‘the knee’. -Ed]...7. Kiz, Kushk-i Qand, Bih, Bind, Dizak, Askf -all these towns belong to Mukran [A Turkic word Kiz↔Qiz means ‘a girl’; Kushk-i Qand ↔ Kuski Kand/Küski Kənd is comprised of two Turkic words:Kushki/Küski ‘ mouse‘ + Kənd ‘a town’, meaning ‘a town full of mice’; Bih ↔ Bi means ‘blade,cutting edge’ in TurkicBind is another form of the proper Turkic name Bindir, and means ‘saddle up’; Dizak contains two Turkic worlds: Diz ‘knee’ + Ak↔Ək/Əy ‘bend’, meaning ‘get on your knees’; Askf is composed of two Turkic words: As ‘a little’ + Kf↔Kıf/Qıv ‘happiness’, meaning ‘not much happiness’.-Ed]…12. M.hali, Qusdar, Kijkanan, Shura, towns of the region of Turan. It is a pleasant locality with much cattle… [M.hali↔Magali/Mağalı is a complex word, formed from two Turkic words: Maga/Mağa ‘snake’ + Li/Lı ‘a typical Turkic ending with denomination ‘containing, abundant’, meaning ‘a snake infested place’; Qusdar is a combination of two Turkic words Qus ↔Quş ‘a bird’ + Dar ↔ Tar ‘free, disperse’, meaning ‘free the birds’; another Turkic town has a curious meaning –Kijkanan → Kij/Gij ‘silly,fool’ + Kanan ‘understanding, being compassionate’, i.e ‘ being compassionate towards mentally challenged’; Shura, or Shuar is an anthroponym, the name of the Turkic town that was given in honor of a legendary Turkic Shu khan. This complex word Shura↔Shuar contains two Turkic words: Shu/Şu ‘the name of the Turkic ruler’ + Ra↔Ar/Ər ‘ a man, a warrior’, meaning ‘a warrior Shu‘; Turan is an ancient Turkic word, mentioned by Herodotus as the name of the country. This word Turan has two components: Tur ‘the diluvian name of Turks + An ‘an ending that indicates plural form, which is incorrect formation of the plurality in Turkic languages, according to famous Turkic turkologist of Middle Ages -Mahmud al Kashgari. -Ed]13. Abl, a town of the Bud-ha region, prosperous and extremely pleasant; its inhabitants are Muslims. 14. Qandabil, a large town, prosperous, pleasant, and situated on the plain. [Both Abl and Qandabil  stem from the Turkic word Abil/Abul – a town Abul in Kashgar region of China, the Azerbaijan town of Ardabil, etc. The Turkic word Abl/Abil/Abul consists of two Turkic words:  ‘a particle,expressing bewilderment’ + Bil/Bul ‘achieve, receive’, meaning ‘become bewildered’. Both the name of the Turkic town Abul,and related to it expression were mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari, such as “Ol məni a qıldı” – “he made me bewildered”. As such, the name of the town Abl means ‘become bewildered’, while Qandabil has an addition at the beginning of the word Qand↔Kənd ‘a town’, meaning ‘the town that gets you bewildered’. -Ed]
  • Discourse on Daylaman and its towns. This is an extensive region possessing many different dialects and types, which is called the Daylamite country…East of this province is Khorasan; south of it, the Jibal lands; west of it, the limits of Adharbadhagan; north of it, the Khazar sea. This province has running waters and numerous rivers, is prosperous…The inhabitants are warlike and fight with shields and javelins. They are pleasant…1. Gurgan, a town with a large province and florishing countryside, very well cultivated and abounding in amenities. It forms the frontier between Daylaman and Khorasan. The people have regular features, are warlike, cleanly clad, chivalrious, and hospitable…Gurgan is the seat of the king of Tabaristan [read: King of Gurgan]. It produces black silk textiles, long veils, brocade, and raw silk textiles. [The name Gurgan is of Turkic origin and means ‘a settlement’. The same name Gurgan↔Qurğan is the name part of the settlement established by a Turkic prince Kul-Tegin – Maği Qurğan, according to the text on Kul-Tegin stela,erected in the VIII c. -Ed]…4.Astarabadh, a town at the foot of a mountain, pleasant and flourishing. It has running waters, and an equable climate. The people speak two languages: the one is the lwtra(?) of Astarabadh, and the other is the Persian of Gurgan. [The name of the town Astarabadh is a complex word, a symbiosis of Turkic and Persian languages Astarabadh → Ast ‘a street’ in Turkic + Ara ‘between, middle’ in Turkic + Abadh ‘a settlement’ in Persian, meaning ‘ a settlement at intersection, between streets’. -Ed]…5.Abaskun, a prosperous town on the sea-coast and a haunt of merchants from the whole world trading on the Khazar sea. [The Turkic name Abaskun , also known as Abiskun, was mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as the name of the Caspian sea. The Turkic word Abaskun/Abiskun most likely was formed  from two Turkic words: Aba/Abi/Abı ‘to hide’ + Skun↔Saqin ‘to wish, desire’, meaning ‘hide desire’. -Ed]…6. Tabaristan is a large (division) of this country of Daylaman. Its frontier is from Chalus to Tamisha. It is a prosperous (district…), with great wealth and numerous merchants. [This country got its name from the Turkic word Tabar ‘wealth’ + Persian ending –Istan ‘place of, country’, meaning ‘a wealthy country’. -Ed]…9. Sari, a prosperous and pleasant town with many inhabitants and merchants. It produces silk tissues…,as well as saffron-water,sandal-wood water, and perfumed water, which are exported everywhere. [Sari is a word of Turkic origin,meaning ‘yellow’ and was frequently used as a proper name in old runic inscriptions, created by Turks. -Ed]…10. Mamatir, a borough with running waters. It produces thick mats of very good quality, which they use in summer. [Consisting of two Turkic words Mamat ‘a proper Turkic name’ + Ir→Ər ‘a man’, the word Mamatir means ‘a man called Mamat‘. Mamat as a proper name was mentioned in a number of old Turkic manuscripts of middle ages. -Ed].11. Turji, a prosperous borough, the most ancient in Tabaristan[The Turkic name Turji, or Turchi→ Turçi was frequently used as a proper male name among Turks, according to the Uygur manuscripts. The fact of being the most ancient borough in Tabaristan and of Turkic origin, the Turkic name of Turji, as well as a number of previously enumerated Turkic towns,settlements and cities strongly support the statement that Turks were not new-comers to the territory, currently known as IranTurks were one of the ancient inhabitants of that region. -Ed]…15. Natil, Chalus, Rudhan,Kalar, boroughs lying among mountains and broken country…This Chalus is on the sea-coast, while Kalar is in the mountains. [Typical Turkic words Chalus ↔ Çalış, meaning ‘try, endeavor’, and Kalar ↔ Qalar → Kal/Qal ‘stay’ + Ar/Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘ a man stays here’. -Ed]…16. Kumish, a province between Rayy and Khorasan on the pilgrim’s road. It lies amidst mountains and is a prosperous and pleasant province, with warlike people. It produces k.nis (?)-textiles, and fruit, of which there is no like in the world...[The province Kumish, or Kümüş/Gümüş, meaning ‘silver’ in Turkic, was famous for its silver-toned textiles. -Ed]…17. Damghan, a town having little water, and situated at the foot of the mountain. Its inhabitants are warlike. It produces dessert napkins with fine borders. [Having Turkic origin, the town name Damghan ↔ Tamğan was mentioned as a proper name in a Turkic monument of the VIII c., found near river Ongin in Mongolia. -Ed]
  • Discourse on the Jazira Province and its towns. This province on its four sides is surrounded by the waters of two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, and on this account it is called the Jazira (“island”)…In it there are many people belonging to the Rabi’a tribe, and many Kharijites…3. Bar-Qa’idAdrama, two flourishing and populous boroughs. [A Turkic name Bar-Qa’id has two components: Bar ‘wealth’ + Qaid ‘return’, meaning ‘a place where wealth returns’. -Ed]…13. Ana, a flourishing borough situated amidst the waters of the Euphrates[Ana means ‘mother’ in Turkic. -Ed]
  • Discourse on the Provinces of Adharbadhagan, Arminiya, and Arran, and their towns. [Adharbadhagan is  modern Azerbaijan. According to the author, Armenia, or Arminiya was a province of Persia which was situated at the territory, currently known as Southern Azerbaijan in Iran. The location of Armenia, or Arminiya in Persia was thousand miles away from the modern location of Republic of Armenia, and had nothing to do with the latter. Back in the X c., there was not such a country or even province as Armenia  in Caucasus, which was explicitly demonstrated by the author of this work on his maps. See http://ancientturks.org/ancientturksorg/ancient-maps-of-turkic-lands/ . There is high probability that the geographical name Armenia, or Arminiya in Persia is of Turkic origin, consisting of two Turkic words – Ar/Ər ‘ a man’ + Men/Min/Mən ‘ I ‘, meaning  ‘ I am a man, a warrior’. There numerous combinations of the word Ar/Er/Ər ‘man’ with another Turkic word, composing a proper name of the place or a person, such as Erbori / Erböri; Erbuga/Erbuğa; Erqamish/Erqamiş, Ersanjmish/Ersancmış, Ertogmush/Ertoğmuş; Ertonqa, found  in old Turkic runic scripts of the VIII c,Therefore, the medieval province Armenia, situated in present day Southern Azerbaijan province of Iran has absolutely nothing to do with modern day Armenians or Armenia Republic, as the author of this book, while describing the inhabitans of Armenia, never mentioned Armenians among them as such. Moreover, Armenia/Arminiya was mentioned as one of the Islamic lands where Armenians were brought as slaves.  To clarify this confusion between medieval Arminiya and modern day Republic of Armenia, one can put forward analogy with the name Georgia. Both state of Georgia in the USA and  Republic of Georgia have similar pronunciation and spelling of their names in spite of the fact that they are  situated in two different continents. Both phonetic and lexical resemblance of these names does not mean that Georgia in US and Georgia in Caucasus are the same geographical, political, ethnical, or cultural entity. Neither it proves that only ethnic Georgians live in the american state of Georgia and country of Georgia, or ethnic Georgians established the state of Georgia in the US.-Ed]. These three provinces are adjacent to each other. Their countrysides enter into each other. East of this region are the borders of Gilan; south of it, the borders of Iraq and the Jazira; west of it, the borders of Rum and the Sarir; north of it, the borders of the Sarir and the Khazars (spelt: Ghazaran).These places are the most pleasant among the Islamic lands….There Greek, Armenian, Pecheneg, Khazar, and Slav slaves are brought. 1. Ardavil, the capital of Adharbadhagan, and a great town within a wall…It is the seat of the kings of Adharbadhagan...[The Turkic word Ardavil ↔ Ardabil/ Ərdəbil  is comprised of three Turkic elements: Ard ↔ Art ‘a mountain’ + A/Ə  ‘a particle,expressing bewilderment’ + Bil/Bul ‘achieve, receive’, meaning ‘the bewildering mountain’.-Ed] 2. Asna, Sarav, MiyanaKhuna, Jabruqan, small but pleasant, prosperous and populous boroughs. [The Turkic word Asna↔Əsnə means ‘yawn’. Perhaps, the place was boring to get this name -‘Yawn’.Another Turkic name Sarav,that consists of two Turkic words Sari/Sarı ‘yellow, pale’ +Av↔Ev ‘home, house’, meaning ‘a yellow house’.The Turkic name Jabruqan has a typical combination of two Turkic words Jabru↔Yavru ‘a baby, youngster’ + Qan ‘a Turkic ending in the toponyms, indicating settlement’, meaning ‘ a family place’.-Ed] 3. Tabriz, a small borough, pleasant and prosperous…[Tabriz is an ancient Turkic name, that used to be called Taurus during ancient times, according to “The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge“, vol. 24, 1842, London. Most likely, the name Taurus→Tauris→Tabriz took its name from the cognominal name of the mountain Taurus, known since the times of Herodotus, if not earlier. The root of the word Taur↔Tur is a pure Turkic word, meaning ‘powerful’. It is the the foremost Turkic word ever, from which the word Turk sprung.-Ed]. 4. Maragha, a large town, flourishing and pleasant, with running waters and flourishing gardens…[The name of the Azerbaijani town Maragha derives its origin from the Turkic word Maraq ‘interest’. It is important to note that this word preserved its form and pronunciation only in modern Azerbaijani language. For instance, in Turkish language, it is currently pronounced and spelled as Merak. This is an additional proof that Azerbaijanies, known as Turks in Southern Azerbaijan,Iran, were native inhabitants of their lands.-Ed]. 5. Barzand, a flourishing and prosperous town...[The Turkic name Barzand has two Turkic components: Barz↔Bars ‘the name of the Turkic tribe,as well as a proper Turkic name, indicating ‘a tiger’ + And ‘oath’, meaning ‘an oath of Bars’.-Ed] 6. Muqan, a town with a district lying on the sea-shore…[Its name Muqan most likely inherited from the ancient nation, called Mages. Known as Μάγοι in Greek due to Herodotus, Mages, that used to inhabit the territory of modern Azerbaijan, and were famous for their sorcery and fortune-telling abilities, are most likely of Turkic origin. The name Mag↔Mağ means ‘glory, fame’ in Turkic. The name of this nation is easily traced in the toponyms, located mostly in modern Azerbaijan Republic, that  used to be Media in ancient times, i.e. Magayny → Mag + Ayny/Oyny ‘ game, trick’, meaning ‘trick of Mags‘ in Turkic;  Maghavus/ Maghavouz/Magavuz → Mag + havus/hovuz ‘pond’, meaning ‘ pond of Mags‘ in TurkicMagdere→ Mag/Maq+ Dere/ Dərə ‘ valley’ in Turkic, meaning ‘ valley of Mags‘; Magydere ↔ Mağıdərə (Migidere/Mığıdərə: Mugudere/ Muqudərə) → Magy/Mağı/Mığı + Dere/Dərə ‘a glorious valley’; Magi Qurgan ↔ Mağı Qurğan, meaning ‘a glorious kurgan’. Magi Qurgan as a settlement was mentioned in a stone stella, named Kultegin inscription, which was written in old Turkic language and erected to honor a Turkic prince Kultegin in the VII c. There are also phonetic variations of the name Mag – it is Mug/Mog, that is the part of a numerous names of big and small cities and towns in present day Azerbaijan – Muqan/MuğanMuqan-Gengeli / Muğan-GenceliMuqanciq MehrabMuqanli/Muğanlı;  as well as Muqan plain. The Turkic word Muqan has two lexical components: Muq↔Mag ‘the name of the ancient nation of Media of Turkic roots’ + An ‘an affix, denoting plurality’, meaning ‘the place of Mages‘.– Ed.].7. Vartan, a very prosperous town from which come zilu and prayer-carpets. [The name Vartan↔Vardan means ‘from wealth’ in Turkic and has two Turkic words, combining it into one: Var ‘wealth’ +Tan/Dan ‘a Turkic affix, denoting direction – from‘.-Ed]. All these towns which we have enumerated belong to Adharbadhagan.
  • Arminiya and Arran. [Arminiya described here as an Islamic land has nothing to do with modern Armenia, that did not exist in X c. as a country or province. Arminiya was situated at the territory of Southern Azerbaijan of present day Iran, and Azerbaijan Republic, while today’s Armenia is located in Caucasus. The name Arminiya is an ancient name that was derived from the name of the god Armennu worshipped in the ancient city of SusaPersia 4,000 BC, and most likely has a Turkic origin. ArmennuAr ↔ Ər ‘a man’ + Mennu ↔ Men/Mən ‘I’, meaning ” I am the man’.  The same Turkic component Ar ↔ Ər ‘a man’ with the plural ending -an/ən constitute the Turkic name Arran, that means ‘men, the land of men’, according to Mahmud al Kashgari  -Ed]. 8.Duvin (Dwn), a great town and the capital of Armenia, encircled by a wall.  The name of this town is of Turkic origin: Dwn ↔ Dan ‘the first appearance of light in the sky before sunrise.’ -Ed]…To it belongs a vast countryside stretching down to the limits of the Jazira and even adjoining Rum. 9. Dakharraqan (spelt: Dakhartab), a flourishing borough, with running waters, near the lake Kabudhan. [Dakharraqan is a Turkic word, composed of three Turkic lexical elements: Dakh ↔ Dağ ‘mountain’ + Arra ↔ Ara ‘in the middle, between’ + Qan ‘place’, meaning ‘a place, or town, surrounded by mountains’. -Ed]. 10.Urmiya (spelt: Armana), a large town,very prosperous and very pleasant. [Its name Urmiya borrowed from a Turkic word Uram ‘a street’ + an Arabic ending -Iya. -Ed]. 11.Salamas (now: Salmas), a flourishing and populous borough producing good trouser-cords. [The Turkic word Salmas means ‘ the one who will not betray, or put down’. -Ed]. 12. Khoy, Bargri, Arjij, Akhlat, Nakhchuvan, Bidlis (spelt: Budlais) – these are all boroughs, small or large, flourishing, pleasant, populous, having riches and merchants. They produce large quantities of zulu-carpets, trouser-cords, and wood. [A Turkic word Khoy ↔ Qoy means ‘ the bottom of the valley’. Bargri is formed from two Turkic words: Barq ‘a building, construction’ + Gri ↔ Ri↔ Ir ‘a stone’, or Ri ↔ Iri ‘large, big’, meaning ‘a construction made of stone; a large building’. Arjij is another Turkic word, consisting of two Turkic words Ar↔Ər ‘a man’ + Jij ↔ Gij/ Gic ‘ silly, foolish’, meaning ‘a silly man’. Akhlat↔Ağlat is a Turkic word that means ‘make them cry’. Nakhchuvan is both a city and administrative center in the modern Azerbaijan. Its name is derived from two words: Nakh ‘Noah’ in Hebrew + Chivan → Chivi/Çıvı ‘a spirit’ in Turkic, while Chivan/Çıvan ‘spirits’ is its plural form due to adding the ending -an, indicating plural form. It is important to note that the name of Biblical prophet Noah is preserved in Hebrew pronunciation. This testifies close Jewish-Turkic religious and cultural relations. Bordering with the Khazars who were ethnic Turks that converted to Judaism was an additional boost to preserve the Hebrew pronunciation than an Arabic – Nuh. The Turkic word Bidlis↔Bulduz carries the meaning ‘acquire,find,get’. -Ed].13. Malazgird, a frontier post against the people of Rum. The people are warlike and the place pleasant. [The name of the town is a combination of the Turkic words Az ‘a little, few’ + Gird ↔ Girdi ‘entered, arrived’ with an Arabic word Mal ‘goods, merchandise’, meaning literally ‘a small number of merchandise arrived’. -Ed]. 14.Qaliqala, a town inside which there is a strong fortress where there are always fighters for the faith… [Another word with the combination of Turkic Qali ↔ Qal ‘ old’ and  Arabic Qala ‘fortress’ elements. This explained by strong Arabic language influence due to close geographical proximity. -Ed]…All these boroughs which we have enumerated belong to Armenia.
  • 20.Qaban, a flourishing town, producing much cotton of good quality. [The Turkic name of the town Qaban means ‘a platter’. -Ed]. 21. Barda, a large town, very pleasant. It is the capital of Arran and the seat of the king of that province…The town produces much silk, good mules, madder, chestnuts, and caraway. [The name Barda is a very old Turkic word Bardi that left its trace in the name of an ancient Turkic nation Parthians : Bardi ↔ Parti ‘wealthy‘, consisting of the root Par↔Bar‘ wealth‘ + Ti/Di is an indicative affix –y, that converts the noun into an adjective: wealth→wealthy.– Ed.].The ancient town of Barda preserved its name as of today and is situated in Aran region of Azerbaijan Republic.-Ed]. 22.Baylaqan, a very pleasant borough, producing striped textiles in great numbers, horse-rugs, veils, and natif-sweets. [Another ancient town of AzerbaijanBaylaqan is a word of Turkic origin. Baylaqan → Baylaq/Baylıq ‘ wealth’ + Qan ‘a typical ending component in the names of Turkic  towns, settlements, country; a place’, meaning ‘a wealthy place’. -Ed]… 24. GanjaShamkur, two towns with extensive fields, prosperous, pleasant, and producing woolen stuffs of all kinds [The Turkic name of the Azerbaijan town Ganja ↔ Gəncə was formed from the Turkic word Kenc ↔ Kənç ↔ Gənc ‘a child’. This semantic root is found in a number of Turkic names, such as Kenc Estemi,Kenc Bersu, Kenc Togmis Tarqan, in the name of town –Kencak Sengir/ Kençək Səngir, in the name of a Turkic tribe, known as Kencek/Kençək/Gəncək, and a place named after this tribe, according to the famous medieval turkologist Mahmud al Kashgari. -Ed] …29.Shakki, a district of Armenia, prosperous and pleasant. Its length is some 70 farsangs. The inhabitants are Muslims and infidels. [The name Shaki ↔ Şəki  is still in use in modern day Azerbaijan Republic and signifies both the same city and region Shaki. -Ed]..32. Sunbatman, a town of Shakki, close to Barda. [Sunbatman, or Sönbatman is a Turkic name of the town, located at the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic, and consists of two words Sön ‘old’ + Batman ‘ a Turkic name of weight measure’, meaning ‘ an old weight measure’. -Ed]. 33. Sanar, a region 20 farsangs long and situated between Shakki and Tiflis. The inhabitants are all infidels. [Sanar is composed of two Turkic words : San ‘respect, title’ + Ar/Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘a respected man’. -Ed]. 34.Qabala, a town between ShakkiBarda, and Shirvan, prosperous and pleasant. From it come many beaver-furs. [An ancient Turkic name Qabala ↔ Qəbələ consists of two words Qab ‘vessel, skin, bag’ + Ala/Ələ ‘sieve’, meaning ‘ a strainer’. Most likely, the town was famous for its utensils in ancient times. -Ed]…36. Shirvan, Khursan, Lizan, three provinces under one king. He is called ShirvanshahKhursan-shah, and Lizan-shah. He lives at the army camp at a farsang’s distance from Shamakhi. [There are a number of Turkic proper names in general, and Azerbaijani in particular, that denominate both men and toponyms and contain the Turkic word Sham/Şam ‘high’, such as in masculine names of Turkic khans: Shamiz ↔ ŞamızShambat ↔ ŞambatShamgun Khan ↔ Şamgün Xan; in names of Turkic and Azerbaijan cities: Sham-Suar ↔ Şam-SuarShamakhi ↔ ŞamaxıShamkur ↔ Şamkür → Şəmkir. Azerbaijan cities Shamakhi and Shamkir preserved their names through centuries and currently siginfy both cities and regions, located in Azerbaijan Republic. The word Shamakhi has two components: Sham/Şam ‘high’+ Akhi/Axı ‘generous’, meaning ‘gloriously generous’, while Shamkur/Şəmkir is composed of Sham/Şam ‘high’+ Kur/Kür ‘brave’, meaning ‘ gloriously brave’. -Ed]…40, Darband-i Khazaran, a town on the sea-coast. [The Turkic name Darband-i Khazaran was written in a grammatical order, inherent to the Persian language, which is not surprising, taking into account the fact that the creator of this book was a Persian. The Turkic word Darband ↔ Dərbənd means ‘a street’ and Khazaran ↔ Xəzaran consists of the name of the Turkic nation Khazar and an ending –an, denominating plurality. -Ed]…41. Baku, a borough lying on the sea-coast near the mountains. All naphta used in the Daylaman country comes from there. [Baku preserved its name and currently is the capital of Azerbaijan Republic. This pure Turkic name Baku was mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari in his Divanu Lugat-it Turk and translated as ‘ a hill, a high place’. -Ed]
  • Discourse on the Rus Country and towns. [The Rus country here is Kiev Rus, or Киевская Русь, known as Ukraine nowadays. -Ed]. East of this country are the  mountains of the Pechenegs; south of it, the river Ruta; west of it, the Saqlabs; north of it, the Uninhabited Lands of the North. This is a vast country, and the inhabitants are evil-tempered, intractable, arrogant-looking, quarrelsome, and warlike. They war with all the infidels who live round them, and come out victorious. The king is called Rus-khaqan…Among them lives a group of Slavs who serve them. [The Turkic title of the king – Khaqan supports the fact that the country of Rus was ruled by Turks, or Khazars to be precise  –Ed]...1. Kuyaba is the town of the Rus lying nearest to the Islamic lands. It is a pleasant place and is the seat of the king. It produces various furs and valuable swords. [The Turkic word Kuyaba, or Kiev, which is the name of the modern capital of Ukraine, was formed from two Turkic words: Kuy→Kü ‘glorious’ + Aba↔Oba ‘a tribe, a dynasty’, meaning ‘a glorious tribe’.By the way, Mahmud al Kashgari specifically underlined that the word Oba is from Oguz dialect. However, later on Kuyaba was transformed into Kuev↔Kiev, preserving the first part Ku/Kü/Ki and replacing one Turkic word Aba/Oba by another Turkic word – Ev ‘a house’, meaning ‘a glorious house’. The Turkic toponymical names in Rus, or modern Ukraine can be easily explained by the fact that in the IX c. the Turkic nation of Khazars, who converted to Judaism, left their country of Khazar, situated at the shore of the Caspian Sea, known also as the sea of Khazar after this Turkic tribe, and relocated to a new territory (Ukraine) where they established cities and towns, governed by the Turkic, or Khazarian ruler – ‘Khaqan‘ in Turkic. -Ed]. 2.S.läba, a pleasant town from which, whenever peace reigns, they go for trade to the districts of Bulghar[A Turkic name S.läba is constructed similar to Kuyaba. It is most likely that S.läba was Süläba/Süləba → Sülä ‘fight, go to war’ + Aba↔Oba ‘a tribe’, meaning ‘ a warlike tribe’.-Ed].3.Urtab, a town where strangers are killed whenever they visit it. [Formed from two Turkic words Ur↔Vur ‘hit’ + Tab↔Təp ‘kick’, the name of the town Urtab delivers the same message it was famous for ‘ hit and kick’ the strangers or visitors of that town. -Ed].
  • Discourse on the Country of the Inner Bulghars. East of it (live) the Mirvat; south of it, it is the Gurz Sea; west of it, the Saqlabs; north of it, the Rus mountain. It is a country without towns. The people are courageous, warlike, and terror-inspiring. Their nature resembles that of the Turks living near the Khazar country. The Inner Bulghars are at war with all the Rus, but carry on commerce with all those who live around them. They posses sheeps, arms, and implements of war.[Inner Bulghars were a Turkic tribe, mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as such. The Turkic word Bulghar is composed of two Turkic words Bulgh↔Bulğ ‘to stir up rebellion, to create havoc’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘rebellious people. Ed]
  • Discourse on the Country of Mirvät. [The name of the country Mirvät is of Turkic origin. The word Mirvät↔Mirvət which is frequently used nowadays in Azerbaijan Republic as a proper male name, means ‘mercy, justice’.-Ed]  East of it are some mountains, and some of the Khazarian Pechenegs; south of it, some of the Khazarian Pechenegs and the Gurz Sea; west of it, some parts of the latter, and the Inner Bulghars; north of it, some of the latter and the V.n.nd.r mountains. They are Christians and speak two languages: Arabic and Rumi. They dress like the Arabs. They are on friendly terms with the Turks and the Rum. They own tents and felt-huts. [Most likely, the inhabitants of Mirvät were Bulghars, mixed with Arabs. The country of Rum was too vast and populated by numerous nations during that period of time. Therefore, Rumi language was any language used by any nation, who lived in Rum and called Rumi. It is possible that by Rumi language the author of this opus meant the language of Bulghars, who lived in tents and felt-huts just like most Turks of that time. -Ed]
  • Discourse on the Country of Rum, its provinces and towns…18.Bulghari, is the name of a people living on the mountain Bulghari to the north-west of Rum. They are infidels. They too are Rumi, but are perpetually at war with the other Rumis. These Bulghari are mountaineers, possessing fields and great numbers of cattle. [Bulghars were a Turkic tribe, mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as such. The Turkic word Bulghar is composed of two Turkic words Bulgh↔Bulğ ‘to stir up rebellion, to create havoc’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘rebellious people. Ed]
  • Discourse on the Country of the Khazarian Pechenegs.[The Turkic word Pecheneg is mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as Bechanag↔Beçənək as the name of the Turkic tribe.The word Pecheneg↔Beçənək most likely has two Turkic components: Peche/Beçə →Biçə ‘small’ + Nək→Nəng ‘fortune, riches’, meaning ‘a man of small means’.-Ed] East of it is the mountain of the Khazars; south of it, are the Alans; west of it, is the Gurz Sea; north of it, are the Mirvat. These people were formerly a group of the Pecheneg Turks; they came here, took the country by conquest, and settled down in it. They own felt-huts and tents, cattle, and sheep.
  • Discourse on the Country of the Alans and its towns. [The Turkic name of Alans has no ground for any doubt. This name was reflected in old Turkic scripts, found in Miran and Tun-huang regions of China by V.Tomsen, as a proper name – Alanı İçirəki. The meaning of Alan in Turkic is ‘the one who conquers’.-Ed].  East and south of it is the Sarir; west of it, Rum; north of it, The Ghurz Sea and the Khazarian Pechenegs. All this country is broken and muntainous and is favoured by nature. Their king is Christian…Among them there are both Christians and idol-worshippers. Some of the people are mountaineers and some plain-dwellers. 1.Kasak, a land of the Alan on the coast of the Ghurz Sea. It is a pleasant place and there are merchants in it. [The Turkic origin of the Alan land Kasak hails from the Turkic word Kesək ‘a piece (of something), mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari. Similar to Kasak – Qazax is still preserved as a name of the city and the region in modern Azerbaijan Republic. -Ed].
  • Discourse on the Sarïr Country and its towns. [The name country Sarïr has undoubtedly obtained from the Turkic language: Sarïr → Sarï ‘yellow’ + R↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘a blonde’.-Ed]. East of it are the borders of Armenia; west of it, the Rum limits; north of it, the Alan country…2.Khandan is the town serving as a residence for the generals of that king. [Khandan↔Xandan is a Turkic word, meaning ‘on behalf of the khan, the king’.-Ed].
  • Discourse on the Country of the Khazars. [Mahmud al Kashgari brought forward this country as Xuzar in his work by stating that this is the name of the place in the country of Turks. The name Khazar comes from the combination of two Turkic words: Xaz ↔Xəzi ‘fur’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘a man in fur’. -Ed]. East of it is a wall stretching between the mountains and the sea, and for the rest the sea and some parts of the river Atil; south of it, the SarÏr; west of it, mountains; north of it, the B.radhas and N.nd.r. This is a very pleasant and prosperous country with great riches….1.Atil, a town divided by the river Atil. It is the capital of the Khazars and the seat of the king, who is called Tarkhan Khaqan...[Atil, or as mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari Ətil is the Turkic name of the river, known now as Volga in Russia.-Ed]…3.Khamlikh, Balanjar, Bayda, Savghar, Kh.tl.gh, L.kn, Swr, Ms..t, towns of Khazars, all with strong walls. [The Turkic word Khamlikh is composed of two Turkic parts: Kham↔Qam ‘healer’ + affix –likh ‘ denominates abundance of something or somebody’, meaning ‘ the place abundant with healers’.-Ed] 4.TulasLugh.r, two regions of (az) the Khazar (country). The people are warlike and have great numbers of arms. [The name Tulas is of Turkic origin,means ‘pale’, while the word Lugh.r, the spelling of which was not completely deciphered by V.Minorsky, is most likely a Turkic word Lagar↔Lağər, composed of Lag/Lağ ‘ridicule’ + Ar/Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘a ridiculous man’.-Ed].
  • Discourse on the Country of Burtas [read: Bulghar!]. [Bulghars were a Turkic tribe, mentioned by Mahmud al Kashgari as such. The Turkic word Bulghar is composed of two Turkic words Bulgh↔Bulğ ‘to stir up rebellion, to create havoc’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘rebellious people. Ed]. East and south of it are the Ghuz; west of it, the river Atil; north of it, the Pecheneg country. The people are Muslims and have a particular language. The king is called Mus. They own tents and felt-tents and are divided into three hordes: Barchula (spelt: B.hdwla), Ishkil, and B.lkar. They are all at war with each other but if an enemy appears they become reconciled. [The Turkic name of the tribe Barchula↔Pachala/Parçala means ‘divide’, Ishkil has two Turkic words combined: Ish/Iş ‘smoke, soot + Kil↔Kel ‘come,appear’, meaning ’emitting smoke ‘. B.lkar↔Bulghar is formed from  Bulgh↔Bulğ ‘to stir up rebellion, to create havoc’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘rebellious people’.-Ed]
  • Discourse on the Country of B.radhas[The incompletely deciphered name of the country B.radhas ↔ Biradhas→Biradız the Turkic origin and consists of two words B.r↔Bir ‘one’ + Adhas↔Adız ‘our name’, meaning ‘we have one name’.-Ed]. East of it is the river Atil; south of it, the Khazars; west of it, the V.n.nd.r; north of it, the Turkish Pechenegs. They are a people professing the creed of the Ghuz.[The Oghuz, a branch of Turks.-Ed].They own felt-huts, and urn their dead. They obey the Khazars.
  • 1.Bulghar, a town to which belongs a small province on the bank of the river Atil[The Turkic word Bulghar is composed of two Turkic words Bulgh↔Bulğ ‘to stir up rebellion, to create havoc’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘rebellious people.-Ed]. The inhabitants are all Muslims. From (Bulghar) some 20,000 horsemen come out who fight against any number of infidel troops and have the upper hand. the place is extremely pleasant. 2.Suvar, a town near Bulghar. In  it live fighters for the faith similar to (the people of) Bulghar[The Turkic name of the town hailed from the name of the Turkic tribe Suvari : Suv ‘water’ + Ar↔Ər ‘a man’, meaning ‘a man of water’.-Ed]