Read more Read more

History of the Turks, Moguls, and Tatars, Vulgarly Called Tartars together with a Description of the Countries They Inhabit. In Two Volumes. Translated from the Tatar manuscript written in the Mogul language by Abu’l Ghazi Bahader, Khan of Khowarazm. London, 1730.

Containing the Antiquities of the Moguls and Tatars from Adam, according to the Account of the Mohammedan Tatars. A curious Description of all the Tribes into which the Turkish Nation is divided : The Life of Zingiz Khan the Great, and of his Successors in the four Parts of his Empire together with a complete History of the Uzbek Khans of Khowarazm, and in a good measure of the Khans of Great Bukharia, from the first Conquest of those Countries under Shah Bakht Soltan in 1494 to the Death of Abu’l Ghazi Bahader Khan, the Author, in 1663. Printed in London, 1730

 

  • The Translator’s Preface…It is certain the Tatars have made themselves remarkable for erudition as well as arms. [Under Tatars the author means all Turkic nations. -Ed] That zeal for the encouragement of learning which passed thro’ several successions of Persian kings, did not cease upon the conquest of the Tatars, but descended even to them. It is to Hulaku, surnamed II Khan, the founder of their monarchy in Persia, that we owe the astronomical tables of Nasiraldin al Tusi, called from him Ilkhanian. He built a magnificent observatory at Maragha in Persia, and invited thither all the great astronomers of his time to observe the motions of the heavens.
  • If we pass from the descendants of Zingiz Khan to those of Timur-beg, or as our author calls him Amir Timur, we shall find that love for learning still continue. Besides the magnificent Academy and Observatory erected at Samarkant, the first by the last mentioned hero, and the other by his grandson Ologh Beg ; this last monarch has made himself famous, among other things, for the Tables of Epochas, and the fixt stars, which go under his name, and will always remain as monuments both of his learning and  inclination to promote the sciences. It is no novelty in the East to find kings among their authors, and the book before us is an instance of two, the father and the son, who were both Khans of Khowarazm.
  • It may appear at first sight a little out of the the way to draw an argument of the Tatar genius from their conquests : events which we shall be told perhaps are the effects of brutal force, and in which numbers only have had the decision.  But whoever shall place those three great Tatar heroes in his view, I mean Zingiz Khan, Timur- beg and Zungh-te, the last conqueror of China ; and shall consider from how small a beginning, and by what degrees, they rose to such immense power ; the potent neighbors they had to struggle with on all sides, and the various turns of fortune they underwent before they could even secure themselves at home. In short, that each of them, comparatively out of nothing, enlarged his little canton to a prodigious Empire ; and in the compass of a single reign, nay in a few years of that reign, conquered considerably more than the Romans did in 500 years. These facts, I say, weighed by a person of sense in all their circumstances, as delivered to us by the historians, whether Asiatick or European, who have wrote their respective lives, must constrain him to acknowledge that nothing less than the most consummate genius could be capable of conducting such grand designs ; and make him look upon the heroes who formed and executed them under so many disadvantages …as infinitely superior to our Alexanders and Cæsars.
  • Our contempt for the Tatars would still lessen perhaps, did we consider how nearly we stand related to them: that our ancestors came originally from the North of Asia, and that our customs, laws, and way of living were formerly the same with theirs. In short, that we are no other than a colony of Tatars. It was from Tatary those people came, who under the successive names Kymbrians, Titans, Kelts and Gauls, possessed all the Northern parts of Europe, and established a mighty Empire there and in Asia, long before Greece was a nation, or Rome had a name. And what, were the Goths, Huns, Alans, Swedes, Vandals, Franks, and other tribes of people, who many ages after descending southward overthrew the Roman Empire, but swarms from the same hive? These Islands of ours beyond all doubt were peopled from Gaul and the Keltick language which still subsists in French Britany, Wales, but more eminently thro’ out Ireland… is a demonstration that the inhabitants are descended from Tatar nation. As for the Saxons, Danes and Normans, who in the latter times made successive conquests of England, everyone knows, or at least believes, they came originally from Tartary[Modern DNA research proves the validity of the author’s suggestion about the genetic origins of Europeans, Asians, and even Native Americans steming from the Turkic roots. Please refer to the following link of the footage made by  National Geographic channel www.youtube.com/watch?v=LDI7j1eftqk#t=26  to learn more -Ed]
  • This affinity between us and Tatars ought to render a history of them the more acceptable to us ; and indeed a faithful and exact chronology from ancient times of that extensive people would be of great use in fixing their migrations and settlements from time to time in all parts of Europe ; but it is but of late that they have begun to keep records of their affairs any more than we ; and their antiquity is to be proved by the testimony of other nations, and not by any monuments of their own.
  • And after all that can be said, every people are best able to write their own history. Other nations, be they ever so near neighbors, or superior to them in politeness and genius, cannot possibly be so well acquainted with their affairs as themselves. And it is obvious from the mistakes committed by the Persian historians, that for a history of the Uzbeks one must have recourse to an Uzbek. [Uzbeks are one of the Turkic nations. -Ed]
  • Japhis [Japheth, son of Noah -Ed.] has been looked upon by some as a prophet, and by others as a common man. After he had quitted the mountain where the Ark rested, he went to settle about the rivers Atell [Atell, or Atil/Itil is the Turkic name of the river, meaning ‘big river’, currently known as Volga in Russia. -Ed] and Jaigick [This Turkic word Jaiqick, which is also Yaik, or Yayiq/Zhayyq, meaning ‘spread, extended over a large area’, or the Ural, denotes the river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan.-Ed] and died after having lived there 250 years. He left eight sons and many kinsfolks and relations. These are the names of his sons: 1.Turk, 2.Chars, 3.Sacklap, 4.Russ, 5.Maninach, 6.Zwin, 7.Camarl, 8.Tarich. Before his death, he appointed his son Turk, to whom he gave the surname of Japhis-Oglany [Means ‘son of Japheth’ in Turkic.-Ed], to bear chief rule in his family, ordering the rest to obey him and acknowledge him for their master.
  • Turk was a man of a superior genius, having been the first who invented many of the conveniences of life, he made himself tents, resided at and pitched upon a fixed residence in a place Isachkoll. He had four sons: 1.Taunak, 2.Zakale, 3.Bersazar, 4.Amlak. At his death he appointed his son Taunak for his successor, who became a very rich and ingenious prince, author of many fine inventions.
  • It happened one day, that Taunak having gone a hunting, and killed much game, ordered a piece to be roasted ; but when he was just going to eat some of it, he by chance let a bit drop upon the ground, and having taken it up, and put it to his mouth he found it delicious, by reason a grain of salt had stuck to it; which having given him to understand that this land was impregnated with salt, he set himself to improve this discovery, and became the first Inventor of the use of salt, no one before him having known what salt was, or that it could season victuals.
  • Taunak lived 240 years, and at his death left his throne to his son Jelza Chan [Yelza Khan. All the names given in this book were written after the German pronunciation,. Therefore, J consonant is always to be pronounced like  YSch as Sh; Ch as Kh; Tsch and Tzch as Ch; Dz and Tz as Dj; Z as J,Dj,or Ch. -Ed.], who lived many years, and before his death appointed his son Dibbakui Chan to suceeed him. Dibbakui Chan lived also a long time, and disposed of the succession before his death to his son Kajuk Chan, who reigned a great length of years ; and had for his successor, after his death, his son Alanza Chan.
  • Alanza Chan had two twin-sons, the one called Tatar, and the other Mogul, or more properly Mung’l ; between whom he divided his dominions, when he drew near his end. It is from this prince the Tatars take their name, and …the Mogulls from Mogul. [According to the author, both Tatars and Mongols share the same Turkic heritage and sprung from the same Turkic forefather.-Ed] 
  • Tatar Chan lived a long time, and had for his successor after his death his son Bucha Chan [Buğa Khan -Ed]. Bucha Chan dying after having reigned likewise a good while, left the scepter to his son Jalanza Chan [Yalanza Khan.-Ed]. After Jalanza Chan, his son Ettela Chan reigned. After Ettela Chan Attaisir Chan came to the throne, and was engaged in bloody wars. After his death his son Orda Chan possesed his dominions a long time in perfect peace, and after his death was succeeded by his son Baydu Chan who having reigned a great many years, thought fit to make war on the descendants of Mung’l Chan ; but dying in the mean while, his son Siuntz Chan [Siunj ↔ Siünc Khan. This Turkic name Siunj, or Sevinj means ‘joy’ -Ed.] found himself engaged in so furious a war with the princes of the posterity of Mung’l Chan, that he had much ado to extricate himself ; because the dominions of the descendants of Mung’l Chan far surpassed his own in power and riches.
  • The term Mung’l has been changed by a general corruption into Mogull [And later to Mongol.-Ed]. Mung signifies ‘melancholy, or a melancholy man’; and because this prince was of a very melancholy disposition, he bore that name very properly. His descendants reigned after him to the ninth generation, Mogull Chan having been the first of them, and ILL Chan the last. Zingis Chan [Chingiz Khan.-Ed] reign’d a long time after them.
  • Mogull Chan having reigned a long time, died and left four sons: 1.Cara Chan; 2.Auwas Chan; 3.Cauwas Chan; 4.Cavar Chan. 
  • In the time of the reign of Mogull Chan, it was the custom not to give names to their children till they had passed the first year. ‘Tis for this reason that Cara Chan would not give his son a name till he was a year old. Then having assembled the lords of his court, and prepared a great entertainment, he ordered the Infant to be brought, and said to them, ” You  know that my son being this day a year  old, it is time to give him a name.” Where upon every one keeping silence to hear what name the father would give him, this child spoke, saying, ” What name mean you to  give me? I call myself Ogus. ” The admiration which this novelty gave the whole Assembly, to see an infant but twelve months old give himself a name, caused them unanimously to consent that he should keep that name, in the opinion that he would one day become a great prince.
  • Ogus Chan embraced very eagerly that occasion to war upon Tatar Chan, and having  vanquished him, took from him so great a booty, that it had been impossible to have carry’d it away, if it had not been for an ingenious man in his army, who on this occasion invented chariots; by the help of which they brought off all the booty : and because those chariots skreeled much, they were called Kunneck, and the author of the invention Kankli ; and all those who are called at present Kankli, are of the posterity of that man who invented the use of chariots. [Kankli, or Kənkli is a Turkic tribe.-Ed].
  • Ogus Chan and the chief officers of his army carry’d their wives with them, it happened that one of his general officers, who had been kill’d in the battle, having left his wife big with child, she could find no other place to retire to when her time was come but an old hollow-tree ; into which having crept when her labour came on her, she there brought forth a son. The chan being informed of this adventure, gave orders to have this child carefully brought up, in consideration that he had lost his father in his service, and gave him the name of Kipzak, which signifies in the ancient Turkish, ‘an hollow-tree’,[Kipzak, spelled also as Kipchak, or Qypchaq is an extinct Turkic tribe.-Ed].When this boy arrived to a fit age, Ogus Chan gave him a considerable army to go and war against the Uruses, Vlaks, Madjahrs, and Bashkirs, who inhabited along the banks of the rivers Tin, Atell and Jaigik ; and having been fortunate enough to bring these people under his subjection, he reigned thirty years in that country. From him are descended all the Kipzaks; and from the reign of Ogus Chan, to that of Zingis Chan, for above four thousand years, no other nation has inhabited between those three rivers, besides the subjects of the princes of the posterity of Kipzak. This country is called Dasht Kipzak, or the Plain of Kipzak.
  • After he had possessed himself of that town, he [Ogus Chan -Ed.] made a review of his army in the spring  following; and finding that some had absented  themselves, he caused diligent search to be made in order to know what was become of them ; and when they were arriv’d some days after, the chan demanded of them where they had been so long. To which they answered, that having followed the army at an easy rate, there fell so much snow one night that they could not possibly re-join it. And as besides that, all their horses and camels had burst, they had been obliged in spite of themselves, to wait till spring before they could be able to appear before him. Whereupon the chan gave them the sirname of Karlik, in memory of the snow stopping them on the road, Karlik signifying ‘snow’. And it is from these people that the Karliks deduce their original. [Karlik, known also as Karluk, Qarluq was a Turkic tribe residing in Central Asia.-Ed]
  • Some time after having taken a resolution to go and conquer the country of Iran, where among others, are the cities of Sham and Misser, he [Ogus Khan -Ed] caused it to be published that all his men should provide themselves with provisions, because they had a long march to make. After which setting forward with numerous troops near the town of Talash, he joined those of his army who had stayed behind in his march to the Indies ; and having asked one of them how it came to pass they had delayed so long coming to him ? He made answer: ” Our horses were quite spent; and for my own part, I was embarrased with a wife who was ready to fall to pieces without my being able to give her any thing to eat ; and being delivered on the road, she was so reduced with hunger that she had not milk to nourish her child, which obliged me to go and kill some game, and roast some of the flesh for my wife’s support, that she might be in a condition to give her infant suck. This I continued to do till such time as one of the officers, commanded to gather together the stragglers of the army, lighting upon me, pressed me to repair to the camp.” Whereupon the Chan having ordered a horse to be given him, with provisions, gave him leave to return home, and gave him the name of Kall-atz in memory of that adventure; for Kall signifies ‘left’, and atz- ‘ being hungry’. [Kall-atz, spelled also as Kalaj ↔ Khalaj ↔ Qalaj. The remnants of the tribe Kalaj still managed to preserve their identity as the Khalaj group in present day Iran with their peculiar Khalaj dialect, sprouted from Turkic roots up. In Azerbaijan Republic, the Khalaj tribe left its trace in the names of towns and settlements. – Ed]. The posterity of Kall-atz, corruptly called Callatz, has since that time increased to that degree, that there are at present divers very numerous branches of them in the country of Maurenner [Roughly, this country of Marenner was situated in the territory known as Uzbekistan nowadays.-Ed], and in the cities of the country of Chorasan [This country of Chorasan is a province of modern Iran. -Ed] and Irak.
  • A year after, having caused his three eldest sons to be called before him, 1. Kiun, or ‘the Sun’, 2, Ay, or ‘the Moon’, 3. Juldus, or ‘the Star’…he [Ogus Khan.-Ed] ordered his three younger sons to be called… These three last were called, i. Kuck, or ‘the Heaven’, 2.Tag, or ‘the Mountain’, 3. Zingis, or ‘the Sea’.
  • He [Ogus Khan.-Ed] also gave gratuities to each of the lords of his court, and his principal officers according to their merits, and as he had his views in causing the golden bow and arrows to be buried in the forest near Sham, he took occasion from thence to give his three eldest sons the name of Bussuk, that is, ‘broken’ in memory of the golden bow which they had found and parted among themselves; and to the three youngest he gave the surname of Utz-ock, that is to say, ‘three arrows’ in remembrance of the same adventure; adding,” It is not by chance, but through the will of the living God, that it came to pass that you found that bow and those arrows, and seeing our ancestors have always believed that the bow signified the prince, and the arrows – his ambassadors, because the arrow  must fly that way the bow is drawn, and that my eldest son Kiun has found the bow, he shall reign after my death, and his descendants after him, while there shall remain any of the posterity of the Bussuks, and those of the posterity of the Utz-ocks shall be their subjects for ever.
  • Ogus Chan dying after having reigned 116 years, his son Kiun Chan succeeded him. He had among those of his council, an old counsellor of his father’s of the tribe of the Vigurs[Vigurs, or Vuqar means ‘full of glory’ in Turkic.-Ed]
  • Ogus Chan left six sons: 1.Kiun Chan; 2.Ay Chan, 3.Julduss Chan; 4.Kuk Chan; 5.Tag Chan; 6.Zingis Chan; each of these six brothers had four sons in lawful wedlock. The sons of Kiun Chan were called: 1.Kagi; 2.Bayat; 3. Alkaaduli; 4. Carajuli. The sons of Ay Chan were called: 1.Jasir; 2.Japhir; 3.Dodurga; 4.Dugar. The names of the sons of Julduss Chan were: 1.Ushar; 2.Kasik; 3.Begdali;4.Karkin. The sons of Kuk Chan were called: 1.Bajender; 2.Bazina; 3.Zauldor; 4.Zabni. The sons of Tag Chan were called: 1.Salur; 2.Imar, 3.Alajunti; 4.Usgar. The sons of Zingis Chan were named: 1.Igder; 2.Baydus; 3.Auwa;4.Kannek. The six sons of Ogus Chan had likewise each four natural sons, which make in all twenty four: 1.Kana; 2.Luna; 3.Turbati; 4.Karedi; 5.Sultanli; 6.Okli; 7.Kukli; 8. Sultzli; 9.Harasanli; 10.Jurazi; 11.Zamzi; 12.Turunco; 13.Kumi; 14.Surki, or, as they name it at present, Surchi; 15.Kortzik; 16.Suerzik; 17.Carasih; 18.Kasquet; 19.Kergis; 20.Takan; 21.Za; 22.Zama; 23.Murda; 24.Shuy.

  • Kiun Chan dying after having reigned seventy years, his brother Ay Chan succeeded him. Ay Chan at length also dying, had for his successor Julduss Chan, not his brother of that name, but another of the same house. Julduss Chan held the reins of the empire with great conduct and prudence, but he did not live long; and after his death his son Mengli Chan succeeded him, who having also reigned very worthily, died in peace at a great age, and left the empire to his son Tinjis; who in his old age, resigned the crown in favour of his son ILLChanthat he might employ the remainder of his days in exercises of devotion. ILL Chan reigned a long time over the Mogulls.

  • ILL Chan and Siuntz Chan reigned at the same  time. ILL Chan being of the posterity of  Mogull Chan, and Siuntz Chan descended from Tatar Chan. These two princes were continually at war together, but ILL Chan always carried away the victory, which obliged Siuntz Chan to send ambassadors with magnificent presents to the Chan of the Kergis, who was a potent prince, to engage him to come to his  assistance; but as ILL Chan appear’d still too formidable for them both, and Siuntz Chan proposed to make his part so good this time, as to assure himself of success in his enterprise, he  took such effectual methods to raise a jealousy of the too great power of ILL Chan in the princes his neighbours, that they all united with him in order to keep him under. As soon as ILL Chan received advice of this confederacy, he went and encamped in a very advantageous place and so fortified himself, that notwithstanding the confederate princes attacked his camp several times with all their forces, they were not able to force it, which obliged them to come to a resolution to order their men, that at the attack which they were to make the next day, they should, after a slight skirmish, throw away their arms, and every thing they had, and feign a flight towards a place where they had planted the best of their troops in ambuscade, in order to draw their enemies into it*(*A method of fighting used of old by all the Scythians). This stratagem having succeeded to their wishes, the army of  ILL Chan rounded on all sides, in such wise that it was entirely cut to pieces; after which the allies having with ease carried the entrenchments of the Mogulls, made all those prisoners who were saved from the defeat of the enemy, and utterly subverted the empire of the descendants of Mogull Chan.
  • ILL Chan had several children, but they all lost their lives with him in that unfortunate battle, except the youngest of his sons called Kajan, and his nephew Nagos, his brother’s son, who were both of an age, and married in the same year. These two princes who had been taken prisoners, seeing themselves with their wives under the guard of only one man, came to a resolution after ten days captivity, to betake themselves to flight with their wives, and return into their own country, where being happily arrived, they first of all appropriated to themselves all the camels, horses, cows and sheep which escaped from the action, having none to dispute them with them; and judging a while after those quarters were not over secure for them, they took the clothes which they found on the field of battle and retired into the mountains. They passed in this manner from mountain to mountain, till arriving with their wives and cattle at the foot of a very high one, they could find no way to pass it but a small path very narrow, made by certain animals called in the Tatar language Archara; and though they searched all about the mountain for another road, they could find none; which obliged them to make use of this path, though it was so strait  there could not pass above one at a time, and that with the unavoidable hazard of breaking one’s neck at the least false step. Having ascended the mountain on one side by this path, they descended it also on the other side by the same way, and were not a little rejoiced to find a landscape perfectly agreeable, interspersed with brooks and charming meadows, abounding in all sorts of delicious fruits. But what pleased them most was, that beholding it inclosed on all sides with inaccessible mountains, they had room to believe themselves sheltered from the pursuits of their enemies. Content with their destiny, they fed in this place, during the winter, upon the flesh of their beasts, the skins of which also served them for several uses, and in summer lived on milk, meats, and fruits. They called this country Irgana-kon in allusion to its situation: Irgana signifying in the old language of the Mogulls ‘a valley’, and Kon ‘a steep height’. After this in process of time their posterity very much increased. Kajan whose posterity were most numerous, called his descendants Kajath  and Nagos who had a less numerous Issue, called one part of his descendants Nagosler, and the other part DurlaganKajan had received the name which he bore from his father ILL Chan because all the children of ILL Chan were exceeding robust and vigorous men. Kajan signifying ‘a torrent which falls down with rapidity from the top of a rock’.
  • There are five aimacks, or tribes which derive their name from Ogus Chan, whereof there is only one, viz. the tribe of the Vigurs, which sprung from the posterity of Mogull Chan. The four others are the tribe of the Kanklis, the tribe of the Kipzaks, the tribe of the Kall-atz, and the tribe of the Carliks; of which something has been hinted in the life of Ogus Chan.
  • …for the Mogulls make use of the term Syrak, signifying ‘a poor spirited person’, when they would speak of a sort of men whom they call Tadjicks because those Tadjicks are a very simple people. [Tadjicks, or modern Tajiks are Persian-speaking population mostly inhabiting the country of Tajikistan.-Ed]
  • In the dominions of the Mogulls there are found two chains of very high mountains which extend from the East to the West, of which one is called Tugra Tubujluk, and the other Uskun Luk Tugra. Between these two chains of mountains, towards the West, lies the true country of the Mogulls, and beyond that more westward yet is another mountain which they call Kutt : between these three mountains the Vigurs inhabited heretofore ; and as one finds in this country ten rivers on one side, and nine on the other, one part of the Vigurs, call’d Un-Vigurs, inhabited about the aforesaid ten rivers, and the other part dwelt about the other nine rivers, and these last bore the name of Tokos Vigurs. They got these different names from the number of the rivers about which they inhabited  Un signifying in the Turkish language ‘ten’, and Tokos ‘nine’… these two tribes coming to unite together, had but one and the same prince whom they call’d Idi-kut signifying  in the Turkish tongue, ‘Sent by the Spirit’: Idi -‘ importing, being sent’, and Kut – ‘the Spirit or Soul’. But in the language of the Usocks, it is as much as to say’ a free man who is not subject to anybody’.
  • The tribe of the Kergis was none of the most numerous at first; but as it possess’d a country very agreeable, full of rivers and fertile fields, many of the Mogulls and other people came and join’d themselves with this tribe ; which considerably increas’d the number of its families.
  • There is a particular tribe of people which  are call’d Ur-mankatts, because they dwell in the places most remote and full of forests. They are neighbors to the Kergis, and submitted as well as those to Zingis Chan. There is also another tribe of the same name, but quite different from this; tho the people belonging to it lead much the same course of life. These  last are of the posterity of Mogull Chan, by his grandson Ogus Chan and that name has been  given them also because of their living always in the forests.
  • The tribe of the Tatars is one of the most ancient and famous of the Turkish nations; it was heretofore above 70000 families strong, and had only one chan who was very potent. But being afterwards divided into several branches, its power by degrees began to decline. The principal branch of the Tatars went and dwelt towards the borders of Kitay, in the country of Biurnaver and was brought in subjection to the empire of Kitay. [Kitay is another name of China.-Ed]. But the Tatars of this branch revolting some time after, the emperor of Kitay was oblig’d to make a severe war upon them before he could bring them again to their duty which has very often been the case with them since.
  •  In the country of the Mogulls, there are on the east-slde eight rivers which all fall into the great river Ikar, or lkran Muran, and they call them all by one common name Sekir Muran, or ‘Eight rivers’…About these rivers heretofore dwelt the Virats. In the time of Zingis Chan, those of the tribe of the Virats had a prince called Tochta-begi, who had two sons: one call’d Inalzi, and the other Tauranzi. This chan and his two sons, after having for a good while maintained  war against Zingis Chan, were in the end vanquish’d, and the Virats reduc’d under the subjection of the Moguils. The Torgauts, the Kuriss and the Utulass draw their origin from the tribe of the Virats; but they have separated and form’d particular branches. The Torgauts bear that name, because they inhabit beyond a country call’d Salika, which is beyond the Country of the Moguils, which has given them the name of Torgaut.
  • The Tumats are likewise sprung from the tribe of the Virats. They dwell upon the borders of the Kergis, in the country of Barkutzin-tugum, and had in the reign of Zingis Chan a prince call’d Tatula Sukar Chan, who was obliged to submit himself to the Mogulls. The Boygazins and the Hirmuzins are also two branches of the tribe of the Virats; they dwell in the neighbourhood of the Kergis, and very peaceable people. The Telanguts, the Oransuts, and the Kussut-maits  are also sprung from the Virats, tho they bear different names. They have all along been renown’d for their skill in physic and  in magic, and for being great hunters and skills and good fishers. Accordingly, they always have dwelt by the sides of rivers, and in forests.
  • The tribe of the Naimanns is very ancient, and very rich; but I am a stranger to their origin and government. The first of their princes that I have come to the knowledge of, was called Karkish Chan who had his son Abjath for his successor after his death. In the reign of Zingis Chan, they were governed by a prince called Taijan Chan, who had a son called Kutshluk ; they dwelt in a country of the Mogulls called Cara Kum, or ‘Black Sand‘, and had not the custom of cultivating their lands.
  • The term Cara-it signifies ‘swarthy’ ; and in asmuch as there was a father who had seven sons all of a swarthy complexion, they called their posterity Cara-its. This tribe is very ancient, and was heretofore very numerous and rich in cattle. It had its own particular government, and dwelt in the neighbourhood of the Naimanns. Among the other princes of Cara-its, there was one of them called Margus Illi Chan, who had two sons, of which the eldest was called Korzacur, and sirnamed Busruk, succeeded his father. The eldest son and successor of Korzacur was called Tayrell, but the emperors of Kitay gave him the name of  Aunak, which imports in the language of Kitay ‘Emperor’.
  • Those of Kitay have built a great Wall to  cover their country, in which there are two Iron gates for the passage of the merchants and other travellers…The Iron Gates which are in the Wall of Kitay are called Timurchanai. The emperors of that country engaged one entire Turkish tribe for great wages in their service to guard  this Wall and the Gates, which give entrance into the empire of Kitay by this Wall. This guard has been entertain’d for along time, and because of the great wages which it gets, they have given this tribe the name of Ungutti, which is as much as to say in the Mogull language ‘Men who are well to pass’.
  • I know not from whence or from what Turkish tribe the Turkaks are deriv’d; the word Turkak signifies in the Turkish language ‘a guard’, for among the Turks, while one half of the guards of the night repose themselves, the other half which is on duty, must always beat upon something which may give a Sound, that one may know they are on the watch; and when he who is on duty has a mind to be relieved, he says to the other Turkak … “Get up and beat”- Tur signifying ‘get up’  and Kak ‘beat’. This tribe has increas’d exceedingly by length of time. We have treated hitherto of the different Turkish tribes which draw their origin somewhere else than from the descendants of Kajan and Nagos
  • I have remarked above,that when Ill Chan [The prince of the Mogulls.-Ed] was defeated by the princes of the posterity of Tatar Chan, that there were none of his whole army escaped,  but Kajan – his youngest son, and Nagos – his nephew, who went and settled themselves among the mountains; and the descendants of Kajan took the surname of Kajat, and those of Nagos took that of Durlagan,or Nagosler, which occasion’ d them in a little time to lose their true names. There was a woman of the tribe of Kajan, and of the posterity of Curlass, who brought forth three children at a time without having had commerce with any man… From  these three sons sprung a numerous tribe which took the surname of Nircha, which signifies in the language of the Mogulls ‘a pure family’, in memory that the first founders of this tribe were born without any commence with man.
  • Kajan and Nagos dwelt in the country of Irgana-kon, and their descendants multiplying, divided themselves into many branches, with different names. There was among others, a man of the posterity of Kajan call’d Curlass ; and as his family was one of the most numerous, they agreed to choose one of them to be Chan of the Mogulls and every time the Chan came to die, they rais’d another of the same family to that dignity.
  • Cabul Chan, great grandfather of Zingis Chan, had six sons, all great warriors; from whence they had the name of Kajat. The eldest of these six brothers was called Borton Chan and had a son called Jessugi-Bayadur, who had a red border between the black and white of his eyes, for which reason they gave to his descendants the surname of Borzugan Kajat, because the Mogulls call such persons Borzugan. Jessugi Bayadur Chan was the father of Zingis Chan.
  • Those of the tribe of the Markats had in the time of Zingis Chan, a chan called Tochtabegi, who was always at variance with Zingis Chan ; and one time among others that Zingis Chan was absent, Tochtabegi invaded his lands, and carry’d away his wives and his subjects with all that fell into his hands. Another time Zingis Chan himself, as he was taking a walk, was made prisoner by Tochtabegi, who lay in ambuscade for that purpose but his subjects ransom’d him for a great sum of money.
  • There was a man of the posterity of Kajan, who had three sons, 1. Zurluk Mergan, 2. Cabay Shira, 3. Busjuday…The same Zurluk Mergan had afterwards a son called Kunkurat, from whom the tribe of Kunkurats  draw their origin. Cabay Shira had two sons, the eldest of which was called Ankarahs, and the youngest Allaknut. From these two brothers the tribe of the Ankarahs and that of the Allaknuts are sprung. The mother of Zingis Chan, called Ulun, and to whom sometimes they give the surname of Ulun-iga, and sometimes that of Ulun Kusin, came from the tribe of the Allaknuts. Busjuday had also two sons, the eldest of whom was named Caranut, and from him the tribe of the Caranuts has its original. The second son of Busjuday was called Conachlot, and and had a son called Meisir-ili, who had two sons, of whom the eldest was called Curlass and the youngest Ilzigann ; and from these two brothers the tribes of Curlass and of the Ilziganns draw their origin.
  • The tribe of the Umma-uts was heretofore called the tribe of the Urma-uts; but at present they are generally called Umma-uts. There was a man of the tribe of the Umma-uts who had three sons, the eldest of which was called Cunnachmar, and from him has issued the tribe of the Cunnachmars.
  • Menglik Izka‘s true name was Menglik and the surname of Izka, which signifies ‘a devout man’ was given him by the Mogulls on account of his great piety and virtue. Zingis Chan was but thirteen years old when Menglik Izka espoused his mother in second marriage, for he had before three sons by a first venter, the eldest of which called Kokza, pass’d in the conceits of people for the image of God. The second son of Menglik Izka was nam’d Arlat and from him came the tribe of the Arlats. The third son of Menglik Izka was called Calkit, because he could not speak plain ; and from him are sprung the tribe of the Calkits.
  • A man of the tribe of the Calkits had two sons, one called Badu and the other Kishlik, who kept the horses of one of the great lords of the court of Aunak Chan of the Cara-its ; one of these two brothers going one day to his master’s apartment with several days gathering of mares’ milk heard that his master being in private with his wife, bid her get his arms in readiness; and upon her asking him what he was going to do with them? he answer’d, that Aunak Chan intended to make war upon Zingis Chan without much noise. This man returning to the place where his brother was, after delivering his milk into his master’s kitchen, they agreed together, that seeing they sprung from the Mogulls, and consequently  were of the same tribe with Zingis Chan they would go and inform him of what was plotting against him…In reward of so great service, Zingis Chan gave to these two brothers an employment which they call Tarkun which frees them from all sorts of taxes; which exemption they have enjoy’d, and their descendants after them to the ninth generation. ‘Tis from this Kishlik that thetribe of the Kishliks draw their origin.
  • The Vishuns as well as the Suldus are branches of the Mogulls. There was in the country of the Mogulls a Chan of the posterity of Kajan called Bizin Kajan who had five sons, the youngest of which named Kipzi Mergan, had the best parts, which induced his father at his death to appoint him his successor…the principal Lords of the country in obedience to the last will of Bizin Kajan had put the government into the hands of Kipzi Mergan. And as the Mogulls call the number four ‘Dunnann’, the descendants of these four brothers retain’d the name of Durmanns and came in process of time to dwell in the dominions of Kipzi Mergan.
  • There was a man of the tribe of the Burmanns who had three sons, the eldest of which was called Barien and from him the tribe of the Bariens deduce their original. The third had no lawful children, though he was marry ‘d, but one of his slaves became with child by him and tho his wife gave this slave great blows on the belly to make her miscarry, yet she was happily brought to bed of a son about midnight, and having wrap’d up the infant in a piece of skin which she had cut off the furred garment of the father, she carry’d it to a place where there was a great deal of a kind of shrubs, which they call in their language Julgun. The father passing next morning by that place, and hearing the child cry, he judged whose it was by the piece of the furred coat which he knew, and carrying the infant home, he gave it to the mother to take care of, and at the same time named it Sukut  because the aforesaid shrubs are called Sukut in the Mogull language; and ’tis from him that the branch of the Sukuts draw their origin.
  • The tribes of the Kurla-uts, and that of the Burkuts inhabited formerly along with the Kankratts, who are related to them; and all these tribes are deriv’d from the Mogulls.
  • The Oklians are also sprung from the Mogulls; but by what generation is unknown. The Dsoigerats and the Adserats are descended from the tribe of the Allaknuts, which is a branch of that of the Mogulls. The Bajauts are divided into several branches, the most considerable of which are those of the Sadagin Bajauts, and the Makrim Bajauts. The Bajauts were neighbors to the Virats, and have taken their different names from the rivers of Sadagin and Makrim, on the borders of which they inhabited. They derive their origin from the tribe of the Durlagans, which are of the posterity of Nagos.
  • The tribe of the Dsalagirs is very ancient: they were heretofore scattered over a great extent of country, and had many princes; but thole of Kitay having declared war against them, they were oblig’d to come closer together, to be in a capacity to assist one another. Their families were so numerous, that formerly they spread over seventy different provinces, which  they call’d in their language Kuran, and the greatest part of them dwelt in a quarter of the Mogulls country called Uman: but the emperor of Kitay having defeated them and carry’d away a great number of them prisoners, the rest of this tribe saved themselves by flight, and were reduced to live on roots for want of other food. This happened in the reign of Dutumin, grandfather of Zingis Chan in the seventh generation…In the reign of Zingis Chan, the other Dsalagirs took likewise the surname of their captive brethren but in truth they derive their origin from the Durlagans, who are of the posterity of Nagos.
  • After the death of Mengli Chodsa, his son Julduss Chan came to reign over the Mogulls and had two sons, who both died before him, but one of them having left a son called Dejun Bajan and the other a daughter named Alancu, Julduss Chan marry’d them together, as soon as they came to a proper age, and gave a magnificent feast on that occasion…In the mean time, Alancu being come to her full time was happily delivered of three sons at a birth; the first of which was called Bocum Catagun from whom the branch of the Cataguns derive their origin. The second was call’d Boskin Zalzi and from him are sprung the Zalzuts. The name of the third was Budensir Mogak, who came to reign over the Mogulls. ‘Tis from him that the family of Zingis Chan and several other considerable families of the Mogulls are deriv’d.
  • Dutumin had nine sons, but the Dsalagirs having slain eight of ’em in the manner above related, Kaydu only remain’d alive and reign’d after his father. Kaydu Chan had three sons; the first was named Bassicar, the second Hurmalancum; and from these two brothers the branch of the Bayzuts derive their original…The third son of Kaydu Chan was called Zapzin, from whom the Zipzuts and Irigents draw their origin… After the death of Kaydu Chan, his son Hurmalancum marry’d his widow, who was his stepmother, and had by her two sons who were called in the language of the Mogulls,  the one Caudu Zena and the other Olekzin Zena ; but in the Turkish language the first Mogul was named Irgak-bura, and the second Urgazi-bura, which signify ‘a He Wolf’, and ‘a She Wolf’. There hath sprung from these two brothers a very numerous family, which took the name of the tribe of Zenass, on account of their ancestors having borne the surname of Zena. They took besides that, the surname of Nagos, insomuch that they had two names; but they have no relation to the branch of the Nagosler.
  • Bassicar, eldest son of Kaydu Chan who reign’d after his father, was a prince of great conduct, and conquer’d many provinces and towns. After him reign’ d his son Tumana…He had nine sons, and of their descendants some retained the name of their family, and the rest divided themselves into divers particular branches…The eldest of these nine brothers was called Zazsu and had three sons: 1. Butakin, 2.Uruth, 3. Mankatt, from whence are descended the three tribes of the same name. The second son of Tumana Chan, was called Janinshur-Tumanzu, and was likewise the father of a particular branch. The third son of Tumana Chan was called Samcazun, and from him are sprung the Badurgins. The fourth was called Batkilku, and ’tis from him that all the Budatts  are deriv*d.The fifth was Cabull Chan, great grandfather of Zingis Chan. The sixth was Cazuli, who had a son called Jedemzi-burlass, from whom the Burlass draw their original. Amir Timur Chan was of this tribe. The term Burlass signifies ‘a commander of troops’. The seventh was called Udur-Bajan, and from him are issued the Cajums. The eighth was called Balzar Oglan, because he halted. Oglan signifying in the language of the Mogulls ‘a lame man’, and from him descended the Vilots. The ninth son of Tumana Chan was called Olzingan, and from him the branch of the Bassuts draw their origin. The Mogulls call a man who has fat a long while at his own fire-side, Olzingan, from whence the name is given, by an indirect application, to the youngest sons, because the parents usually keep them longer at home than the other children * and they reckon reckon the for same reason among the Mogulls, that the youngest sons are the most robust and fit for war.
  • ‘Tis to be observ’d here, that the Turks and Tadjiks are accustom’d in reckoning up genealogies not to go backwards above the seventh generation. The Mogulls call the father in the first generation Izka, the  grandfather or father in the second generation Ulugan, him in the third Atinzak, him in the fourth generation Budutur, in the fifth Badakur, in the sixth Murki, and the father in the seventh generation Dutakar.
  • The tribe of the Tayzeuts, which was the richest and most considerable of them all, was the first which revolted from Zingis Chan, having submitted to one Burgany Kariltuk,whom the other branches, which had withdrawn themselves from the obedience of Zingis Chan, in like manner acknowledg’d afterwards for their head.
  • These are the names of the tribes which  went away with Burgany Kariltuk: the Cataguns, the Zipzuts, the Dsoigerats, and the Nirons, of which there did not stay so much as one family with Zingis Chan. The tribe of  the Markatts which never would submit to the father of that prince, went over also to Burgany Kariltuk, as soon as they were informed that he had separated himself from Zingis Chan, and corrupted such numbers; but Zingis Chan having made war upon these revolters, reduc’d them to their obedience one after another.
  • There was a man of the tribe of the Dsoigeratt, called Zamuca Zizen ; the term Zizen in the Mogull language, signifies ‘an eloquent man’…
  • … the tribe of the Kunkurats at that time dwelt upon  the banks of that river [The river Kalassui, or Orkhon.-Ed], and had a chief called Turk-illi...
  • The most remarkable thing which happen’d at this solemnity was, that one Cokza surnamed ‘the Image of God’, son of Menglik Izka by the first venter, sprung from the tribe of the Cunachmars, father-in-law to Zingis Chan, came to this prince, called till then Tamuzin, and declar’d to him, that he came from God, to tell him that from thenceforth he should take the name of Zingis, and order all his subjects for the time to come to call him “Zingis Chan” He foretold at the same time, ” that all those of his posterity should be chans from generation to generation.The word Zin in the Mogull language signifies ‘great’ , and the termination Gis, making the superlative,  is as much as to say ‘the most great’. [The name Zingis, or Chingiz also means ‘a sea” in Turkic/Mongol.-Ed].
  • In the meantime, Taijan Chan of the Naimanns dispatch’ d an envoy to Alakus, chief of the tribe of the Ungutts, with Instructions to tell him, that Zingis Chan began to make himself more formidable every day, and treated with extreme severity those whom he brought under his power…
  • The Mogull generals perceiving the danger they were in, sent one of their officers with magnificent presents to the Kipzaks, and to tell them, that they were very much surprized to see that those who were of the same blood with the Mogull should join themselves with the Alans, who were a people entirely foreigners to them, to make war a- gainst their relations and allies who had never offended them, and with whom it would be far more honourable for them to live in amity.
  • Zingis Chan was a prince of a great genius, which partly appears by the discipline which he established among his troops, which he divided into several bodies of 10,000 men, and  each of these bodies had its particular commander called Tuman Agasi : Aga signifies ‘a commander’, and ‘Tuman‘ – 10,000. These bodies were subdivided into batallions of 1,000 men, having each its chief called Miny Agasi, or ‘commander of a thousand’. These batallions were likewise divided into companies of 100 men, having each its captain, called Gus Agasi, or ‘commander of a hundred’, and these companies were yet sub-divided into platoons of ten men, having each its officer called Un Agasi, or ‘commander of ten’; but all these divisions were subordinate one to the other, and received their orders from the commander in chief of the whole body. [The words Tuman,Aga, Min, Gus/Yuz,Un/On are of Turkic origin,and are widely used in the daily lives of all the modern Turkic nations.-Ed]
  • Among a great many wives and concubines which he had, he distinguished two above all the rest, who were two sisters, daughters of Caba Noyan, chief of the tribe of Kankratts; the first of whom called Bussulun, bore him many sons, which he loved best of all his children. And the second was called Tarchan Chatun whom he espoused after the death of the first.
  • The Mogulls empire in Persia divided by civil wars. Abusait Chan dying, after he had reigned in all nineteen years; those of the tribe of Suldus, the heads of which from father to son bore the name of Zupani, put the scepter into the hands of Arpa Chan, who was descended from Artok-buga, third son of Taulai Chan.
  • Zlngis Chan being on a time absent, while Borta-cuzin, mother of Zuzi Chan was with child of him, the Markatts came and …after they had ruined every thing that came in their way, they carry’d Borta-cazin with them. But in regard she was sister-in-law of Aunak Chan of the Caraits, and that prince was an intimate friend of the chan of the Markatts, he easily obtained her liberty and sent her back immediately to her Husband… Borta-cuzin having brought forth a son on the road, and having no blankets for want to wrap her child in, she bethought herselt of making a paste of meal pretty thick, upon which she laid her infant, to save it from being hurt by the ground. Zingis Chan overjoyed at his wife’s return and being happily deliver’d of a son, cry’d out:” God be thank’ d you are come back with a zuzi, which signifies in the Mogull language ‘a guest’, From that time forth that child took the name of Zuzi.
  • He had for his successor in the throne of the Kipzaks, his brother Mengu Timur, who was a prince of much courage and conduct. This prince after his advancement to the crown, gave the property of a certain tribe among the number of his Subjects called Ak-orda, to Bayadur Chan, son of Sheybani Chan, and to Oran Timur, son of Togai Timur, he gave the towns of Caffa and Crim [Crim is the modern Crimea that was annexed by Russia in 2014.-Ed]; after which he took the field against the Bulgars…
  • Tochtagu got himself acknowledged ‘Chan of the Kipzaks’…After his death Usbeck Chan, his son succeeded him in the throne of Dasht Kipzak ; and though he was but thirteen years old at his advancement to the throne, yet he reigned with  much prudence and resolution. He introduced the Mahometan worship through all the provinces of his dominions, which procured him so much the affections of his subjects, that in order to give him public demonstration of it, they all took the name of Usbecks, which they have constantly retained ever since; for before introduced the reign of Usbeck Chan they were never known under that name,
  • There was at the same time a man of distinction of the tribe of the Ak-Mungals, called Kutluk Kaba, who had a son named Idigi Mangap, and a daughter whom Amir Timur gave in marriage to one of his sons, and of this marriage was afterwards born a son, who was called Timur Kutluk.
  • Toktamish Chan was a prince of much bravery and conduct, he had frequent quarrels with the Russians, but he beat them several times , and reduced them to great straits after he had taken the towns of Moscow and Wolodimer from the Czar Demetrius Ivanowits; which happened in the year 1382. [This is the remark of the translator.-Ed]
  • Zuzi Chan had during the lifetime of his father form’d the design of making war upon the Zerkass [Zerkass, or the Circassians belong to Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, native to Circassia which is currently a part of Russia. Though the Chircassians refer to themselves as Adyghei, they are widely known under exonym Chircass/Cherkess, comprised of two Turkic words: Chir/Cher ‘opposite’ + Cass/Kess ‘cut’, meaning ‘cutting in opposite direction’. The Chircassians were famous swordsmen and had their manner of using the sword, which earned them this name.-Ed], Bashkirs [The Bashkirs are Turkic people, indigenous to Republic of Bashkortostan, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, and being currently a part of Russia .-Ed], Urusses [Russians.-Ed], and other nations bordering on those people…
  • Some time after his arrival at the court of Abulgair Chan, the news was spread abroad that Abusait Mirsa had marched with all his forces towards the province of Chorassan, and that from thence he had passed forward into the country of Masanderan, after having intrusted the government of Maurenner to a certain lord of the tribe of the Arlats, called Amir Mafiet.
  • After the Persians, in conjunction with the Oriental Turkmanns [The translator’s “the Oriental Turkmanns are modern Azerbaijanies.-Ed], had driven the descendants of Tamerlan out of Persia, immediately after the death of that conqueror under the conduct of Cara Machmat [Cara Machmat was a ruler of Turkic origin.-Ed], Persia fell into horrible confusion, which continued till Ussun Cassan (Uzun Hassan) at length obtained the throne, and established the monarchy of Persia in its former lustre [Ussun Cassan, or correctly Uzun Hasan was an Azerbaijani, of Turkic origin. The part of his name Uzun means ‘tall’ in Turkic.-Ed]; but after his death, which happened in the year 1484 that kingdom relapsed into the same disorder  which ceased not till towards the beginning of the 16th age, when Shah Ismael possessed himself of the monarchy of Persia. [Shah Ismael was also an Azerbaijani, of Turkic origin.-Ed]
  • Shah Ismael was grandson by his mother to Ussun Cassan (Uzun Hassan), king of Persia, and by his father, grandson of one of the grandsons of Sheich Sefi, who lived in reputation of great sanctity in the town of Ardevil [Ardevil, or correctly Ardebil is the town in the Southern Azerbaijan.-Ed], in the time of Tamerlan, (Amir Timur) and pretended to be descended in a right line from Ali, son-in-law to Mahomet; ’tis for that reason that all his descendants took the quality of ‘Sheich’, down to Shah Ismael; who was the last of that family which bore that title. [The word Sheich, or Sheykh is of Arabic origin, meaning ‘A man respected for his piety or religious learning; chief’.-Ed]
  • Shah Ismael died in the city of Caswin in the year 1525, aged 45 years, and his corps was laid in the tomb of Sheich Sefi, his great great grandfather at Ardevil, where most of the kings of Persia of his race have since chosen to be interred. All the kings who have reigned in Persia since Shah Ismael, have been of the family of the Sofi, and of the posterity of that prince. [All these kings of Persia were Azerbaijanies, of Turkic origin.-Ed]
  • The present king of Persia is called Shah Tamas II. and by the course of affairs in those parts, he will probably be the last king of Persia, of the house of the Sofi’s.[Shah Tamas, or Shah Tahmasib was also an Azerbaijani, of Turkic origin.-Ed]
  • Two years after, the principal inhabitants of the town of Vasir, went to the country of Bakirgan to find a man of their religion of the tribe of Sagidatta, who had a very extraordinary reputation for probity and virtue, and  proposed to him their resolution to proclaim him ‘chan’ and cut the throats of the Persians who were in garrison in their city. [The name of the Turkic tribe Sagidatta, or Sakitata is comprised of two Turkic words: Sagid/Sakit ‘peaceful’ and Atta/Ata ‘a father/patriarch’, meaning ‘a peaceful patriarch’.-Ed].
  • The day after this adventure they all went out to meet Ilbars, and the Usbeks as well as the Sarts having received him with a great deal of joy, they solemnly proclaimed him their ‘Chan‘…which happened in the year 911, called Koi, or ‘the Sheep’. [The Islamic year 911 is 1505 AD, and the Turkic word Koi , or Koyun, Qoyun in Turkish, Azerbaijani respectively.-Ed]
  • Thereupon Saphian Chan having sent word to  the Turkmanns of Abulchan of the tribe of Irsari, that they should agree to pay him an annual contribution, or that he would come and destroy all their habitations, they voluntarily assessed themselves and sent him the sum by way of a free gift.
  • You must know that the river Amu after it has pass’d by Urgens, takes its course towards the  West and the mountain of Abulchan…There were at that time habitations in abundance upon both sides of that river…The Turkmanns who possessed those quarters went to encamp in summer in the neighbouring valleys, where they knew they should have water for their cattle, and in winter they return’d to their habitations on the banks of the river. The Turkmanns of the tribe of Adaklichisser-illi dwelt on both sides of that river, from the country of Pishga as far as that of Karikizit , from the country of Karikizit as far as the mountain of Abulchan, the Turkmanns of the tribe of Aly-ili inhabit, and the Turkmanns of the tribe of Ti-u-azi possess the rest of the two sides of the river Amu, from the mountain of Abulchan, as far as the sea of Masanderan.
  • Saphian Chan having arriv’d with his army at the first habitations of the Turkmanns, which were those of the tribes of Irsari and Chorassan-Saluri, which dwelt together, found at first much resistance.
  • To make up this number of 40000 sheep the tribes of Taka, Sarik and Jamut obliged themselves to furnish 8000, the tribe of Irsari 16000, and that of Chorassan-Saluri the remaining 16000.
  • The other tribes of the Turkmanns made also their agreement afterwards with the chan, viz. that the tribe of Itzki Saluri should give annually 10000 sheep by way of contribution…; the tribe of Hasan 16000 contribution sheep… the tribe of Ikdur and that of Dsaudur 12000 contribution sheep…the tribe of Arabaz 4000 contribution sheep…; the tribe of Koklan 12000 contribution sheep…The Tribe of Adakli 12000 contribution sheep… With regard to the three tribes of Turkmanns which dwelt along the banks of the river Amu, it was stipulated that they should contribute no sheep, but that the tribe of Adaklichisser-illi should furnish yearly a certain number of soldiers for the chan’s service, and that those of Aly-ili and Ti-u-azi should pay their contribution in merchandizes. These three last tribes of Turkmanns who lived upon the profits of their lands were surnamed Utzill, which is to say, ‘a people divided into three branches’.[The Turkic word Utzill, or  Üç el has 2 components:  Üç ‘three’ and El ‘tribe’.-Ed]
  • The mother of the two youngest sons of Avanash Chan was also a daughter of a mirsa of the Mankatts, and ’tis the custom among them, when the chan has a spouse who is daughter of a mirsa of the Mankatts, she is called Biim, nor has any other wife of a chan, let her be of what family she will, a right to pretend to that name.
  • …you must know that the word Tugma signifies ‘a chid born of a bought slave’.
  • …when Avanash Chan was taken, was glad in so bad circumstances to retire to an old domestic of his father’s of the tribe of the Durmanns
  • Obeit Chan having immediately assembled a numerous army, march’d towards Urgens, but arriving at the habitation of a tribe of the Turkmanns, called the tribe of Caramit, he stopped there with part of his army, and sent two of his generals with the rest of his forces to Urgens. Of these two generals of Obeit Chan, one was sprung from the tribe of the Oklians, and called Bisam, and the other from the tribe of the Kunkurats, and named Haphis.
  • Junus Sultan, who was a prince of much ambition and courage, having espoused the daughter  of a certain bijaul of the Mankatts, called Ismael, who was come to settle in the country of Charass’m, departed one day from Chajuk,… [The Turkic word  Bijaul denoted a military charge similar to ‘colonel’ among the Cara Kallpacks and the Tatars.-Ed]
  • This revolution happened in the year 965, called Gilki, or ‘the Horse’.
  • While these things were a doing, Hadsim Chan and the ten princes who accompany’d him …arrived in the year Gilan, or ‘the Serpent’, with a train of 150 horse at the court of the shah of the Persians, that prince came in person to receive them, and gave them the best treatment imaginable.
  • …it happen’ d in the year Koi, or ‘the Sheep’, which is the same year that there appeared a great comet in the sky,
  • …he return’d  into Great Bucharia, where he died the last day of the year 1006, called Tauk, or ‘the Hen’. [1597 AD.-Ed]
  • Upon the news of the death of Abdula Chan, Shah Hiabas Masi having gather’d a numerous army at the beginning of the following year, called It, or ‘the Dog’, came and encamped near Bastam.
  • After which Isphandiar Sultan was solemnly acknowledged in quality of Chan which happened in the year 1032, called Tongus, or ‘the Hog’.
  • Abulgasi Sultan was born at Urgens in the year 1014, called Taushan, or ‘the Hare’, on Monday in the month of Asfet at sunrise.
  • Din Mahamet Chan was a prince, who … was extremely generous, gracious and eloquent…He died in  the town of Meru in the the year 960, called Sigir, or ‘the cow’, at the age of forty years. [The Islamic year 960 is 1552 AD.-Ed]
  • Hadsun Sultan was born in the year 930, called Lu, or ‘the crocodile’…
  • Abulgasi Chan, in the year Zizkan, or “the mouse”, entring into the country of Bamaburinak, to disiodge the Turkmanns who had fled thither from the country of Tarchan…
  • In the year Bizin, or “the ape”, Abulgasi Chan went to take the town of Zardjui which belongs to Great Bucharia
  • In the year Bars, or “the tiger”, he return’d a-new into Great Bucharia …
  • But Pulat Sultan and Timur Sultan, who were also by one mother, had each of them a moiety of the city of Chajuk, and they assigned over and above to Pulat Sultan, the Turkman tribe of Uluktu-baconash for his support, and to Timur, that of Cara-bugaul.
  • In the mean time Aly Sultan, who suspected nothing of the matter, had enter’d according to his usual custom with some troops into the country of Istarabat, in order to oblige the Turkmann tribe of Okli Koklan to pay him contribution.
  • …a certain mullha, who perhaps was a man of exemplary piety, had the government of Kaht, and the intendency of a tribe of Turkmanns, called the tribe of Bajat …
  • And as it is not far from Bastam to Istarabat, and that the Turkmann tribe of Amir dwelt then about that town, the chief of whom called Alytar-beg, had always testify’d so great an affection for their house, that they had hopes he would not fail them on that occasion. [The Turkic word Amir ↔ Amır means ‘to love’.-Ed]
  • After which departing all together from Istarabat they went towards the mountain of Kuran, about which the Turkmann tribes of Taka and Jamut then dwelt.
  • From Mankishlak, the princes pass’d on to the habitations of the tribe of Irsari
  • Baba Sultan on his side, having arrived before Chajuk, the Sarts who dwelt in that own opened the gates to him.
  • To this effect he got together some well-disposed Turkmanns and Zagatais, to whom he joined yet two hundred Usbecks of Urgens
  • Six months after, a thousand Callmaks [Callmaks, or Kalmyks derive their origin from Mongols, who  share the same heritage as Turkic nations. The word Callmak means “to stay” in Turkic. This Turkic nation of Callmaks preferred to stay in one place and grow roots for generations. -Ed] having invasion found means to pass between a lake called Chodsa Culi and a mountain named Sheich Asis, came to surprise certain subjects of Arap Mahamet Chan, who had their habitations along the banks of the river of Khesill towards the town of Kaht ; and after they had killed a great number of them, they were upon their return loaded with booty and prisoners.
  • …a man of the tribe of the Kergis, called Bikbagli Bayadur, and one Bakli Mirsa of the tribe of the Vigurs having informed Arap Mahamet Chan of it, he had Chisseran Sultan taken and killed.
  • Isphandiar Sultan having been joined on the road by seventy Turkmanns of the tribe of Taka, and by a hundred others of the tribe of Jamut, advanced with his small Troops directly forward to the town of Tuk, in the neighborhood of which he knew Habash Sultan at that time encamped.
  • One sees upon the side of the river Amu, a very high tower built with stones, about which inhabits a branch of the Vigurs called Cara Vigurs Tokai ; and ’tis near the habitations of this branch  of the Vigurs that the river Amu divides itself into two arms, one of which passes before the said tower, and is called Tokai and the other, which is the greatest, having quitted for some time past its old bed, throws itself by a large channel into the river Khesill, near the town of Tuk, which has done much injury to the city of Urgens, at present no better than a desert…
  • …it happened that the Turkmanns were gone to pillage a burrow in habited by the Sarts, called Chanaka, at the time that Abulgasi Sultan and his men went out of their entrenchment…
  • …insomuch that having already by the last day of the month of Ramedan, lost three considerable Troops of his subjects, one of which retired into Great Bucharia, and the other two among the Casats and Mankatts, he was constrained, that he might not remain alone at the mercy of Isphandiar Chan, to go seek likewise refuge elsewhere. [The tribe of Casats, or Kazaks,to be precise, are the founders of modern day KazaksКазаки in Russia and Ukraine.-Ed]
  • But two years after, Ishim Chan having massacred Tursum Chan, together with all those of the tribe of the Cataguns, who were his ancient subjects…
  • The governor of Jaursurdi, not daring to trust his prisoner with anybody, went himself with him to Hamadan, where Shah-sefi  of the Persians, who succeeded Shah Hiabas Masi in the throne of Persia, was at that time; and that prince ordered that he should be conducted immediately to Ispahan, where he assigned him a good house, and ten thousand Tanga a year for his expence but at the same time he had him very carefully watch’d, that he might have no opportunity of escaping, [It is a very rarely mentioned fact that both rulers of medieval Persia:Shah Sefi – “Shah-sefi  of the Persians” and Shah Abbas – “Shah Hiabas Masi‘ were of Turkic origin, not Persians. The Turkic word Tanga, meaning ‘money’ is still used under the same name as currency in Tajikistan, as Tenge in Kazakhstan. The Russian word “деньги” is a loanword from the Turkic with the same meaning ‘money’. -Ed]
  • Abulgasi Sultan having learned from some people who were burying a corpse near to it, that village was called Boiish, and that the Inhabitants of the village were Sagits, he gave ten Tanga to one of them, ordering him to go and buy them oats at the village…
  • …because the Shah has lately receiv’d news from the frontiers of Chorassan, importing, that the Zagatais having  besieged Candahar, and made an Irruption into the lands of Bast
  • … the lord who sits there, is of the nation of the Zerkass, and called Mahamet Culi Beg
  • …arriving afterwards at a village which was inhabited by Turkmanns without his knowing it, he asked a lad whom he saw near the road what sort of people inhabited that village ; and the boy having reply’d “We are Kisilasaks “; Abulgasi Sultan said to him,:”How then came ye here, since you belong  to Mankishlak?” To which the boy answer’d, ” That is true; but the Callmaks having driven us out of our habitations three years ago, we came to settle here, and did not  build us houses till this year.” After which Abulgasi Sultan inquiring who were their neighbours, the lad named five or six Turkmann Families of the tribe of Irsari, of Abulgasi Sultan’s acquaintance, which dwelt not far from thence.
  • …but as soon as spring came he repair’d to the Turkmanns of the tribe of Taka, who dwell near the banks of the river Amu, at the foot of the mountain of Kuran
  • Soon after another Callmak of distinction, of the tribe of the Torgauts, called Boyan, coming into the country of Charass’m to traffick, and with him several other merchants of his nation, Abulgasi Chan let them finish their business quietly...[The tribe of the Torgauts is a branch of the Virats.-Ed]
  • The chief of the Turkmanns of the tribe of the Bairatzs, called Adi, having always been an enemy to Abulgasi Chan, he resolved in the year Taushkan, or “the hare”, to go and chastise the Turkmanns of that tribe, and put their chief to death.
  • Abulgasi Chan being resolv’d to reduce the Turkmanns so low, that they should not be able to make any disturbance so easily for the future, he went in the year Gilan, or “the serpent”, to chastise the Turkrmanns of the tribe of Gemergemilli: and in the same campaign he found occasion to chastise those of the tribe of Sarik; not to mention several other expeditions which he made on divers other occasions against the Turkmanns, of which he kept no account, be cause it was not worth the while.