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History of the Turks, Moguls, and Tatars, Vulgarly Called Tartars together with a Description of the Countries They Inhabit. In Two Volumes. Translated from the Tatar manuscript written in the Mogul language by Abu’l Ghazi Bahader, Khan of Khowarazm. London, 1730.

  • It was on the mountain of Djudi, between the town of Musel and that of Sham [Mountain Djudi, or Judi Dagi is located in modern Turkey. -Ed.], that  Nui [Noah -Ed.] built the Ark, from whence the waters  raised it the first day of the month Redjeb [It is the seventh month of the Islamic month,known as Rajab which means ‘respect’ in Arabic. This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited. -Ed]  and they kept it sailing till the 10th day of Muharam [ Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar, means ‘forbidden’ in Arabic‘.-Ed.] when it rested upon a mountain; so that it floated six months and ten days. Of all the men which had entered into the of the Ark with the prophet, only himself, his wife, and his three sons and their wives went alive out of it; all the rest being dead of sickness during the Deluge. After which Nui dispersed his three sons through the world, having sent his eldest son Ham to inhabit the Indies, his second son Sam to inhabit the country of Iran and his youngest son Japhis [Japheth -Ed.] into the country of Kuttup Shamach and the neighbouring lands ; injoining them, that forasmuch as there were then no more men in the world but themselves, they should not begin to build cities before their posterity multiplyed. Japhis has been looked upon by some as a prophet, and by others as a common man. After he had quitted the mountain where the Ark rested, he went to settle about the rivers Atell [Atell, or Atil/Itil is the Turkic name of the river, meaning ‘big river’, currently known as Volga in Russia. -Ed] and Jaigick [This Turkic word Jaiqick, which is also Yaik, or Yayiq/Zhayyq, meaning ‘spread, extended over a large area’, or the Ural, denotes the river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan.-Ed] and died after having lived there 250 years. He left eight sons and many kinsfolks and relations. These are the names of his sons: 1.Turk, 2.Chars, 3.Sacklap, 4.Russ, 5.Maninach, 6.Zwin, 7.Camarl, 8.Tarich. Before his death, he appointed his son Turk, to whom he gave the surname of Japhis-Oglany [Means ‘son of Japheth’ in Turkic.-Ed], to bear chief rule in his family, ordering the rest to obey him and acknowledge him for their master.
  • Mogull Chan having reigned a long time, died and left four sons: 1.Cara Chan; 2.Auwas Chan; 3.Cauwas Chan; 4.Cavar Chan.  But Cara Chan [The name Cara Chan means ‘black khan’ in Turkic.-Ed], as being eldest, came to the empire after the death of his father, and was a very powerful prince. During the summer, he made his abode about the mountains of Ar-tag and  Car-tag [Ar-tag , or Ər dağ in Turkic means ‘a masculine mountain’, and Car-tag , or Qar dağ means ‘a snow mountain.’-Ed], called at present Uluk-tag and Kitzik- tag [Uluk-tag, or Ulu-dağ means ‘ancient mountain’, and Kitzik-tag, or Kichik↔Kiçik dağ  means ‘a small mountain’ in Turkic.-Ed] and in the winter-time, his residence was upon the banks of the river Sirr [ The Turkic name of the river Sirr means ‘mystery’.-Ed], at the foot of the mountains which are to the north of that river. In his time none were to be found of the true religion, the whole world making open profession of idolatry.
  • Ogus Chan being advanced to the throne, caused an order to be published that every one should embrace the true religion [This was monotheism,i.e when there is only one God.-Ed]; and the  better to encourage his subjects therein, he heaped favours upon those who obeyed him readily; whereas he gave no quarter to those who persisted in idolatry… many of his subjects who would not quit their idolatry went and sheltered themselves among them, which moved Ogus Chan to make war upon them so briskly, that at last he obliged them to submit, except a very few who retired into the dominions of Tatar Chan, who resided in the neighborhood of Djurdjut. The town of Djurdjut is very powerful, having several small towns under its jurisdiction. ‘Tis situated towards the frontiers of Kitay, being called Zinu in the Indian and Persian language.[Known today as China.-Ed]
  • ILL Chan had several children, but they all lost their lives with him in that unfortunate battle, except the youngest of his sons called Kajan, and his nephew Nagos, his brother’s son, who were both of an age, and married in the same year. These two princes who had been taken prisoners, seeing themselves with their wives under the guard of only one man, came to a resolution after ten days captivity, to betake themselves to flight with their wives, and return into their own country, where being happily arrived, they first of all appropriated to themselves all the camels, horses, cows and sheep which escaped from the action, having none to dispute them with them; and judging a while after those quarters were not over secure for them, they took the clothes which they found on the field of battle and retired into the mountains. They passed in this manner from mountain to mountain, till arriving with their wives and cattle at the foot of a very high one, they could find no way to pass it but a small path very narrow, made by certain animals called in the Tatar language Archara; and though they searched all about the mountain for another road, they could find none; which obliged them to make use of this path, though it was so

    strait  there could not pass above one at a time, and that with the unavoidable hazard of breaking one’s neck at the least false step. Having ascended the mountain on one side by this path, they descended it also on the other side by the same way, and were not a little rejoiced to find a landscape perfectly agreeable, interspersed with brooks and charming meadows, abounding in all sorts of delicious fruits. But what pleased them most was, that beholding it inclosed on all sides with inaccessible mountains, they had room to believe themselves sheltered from the pursuits of their enemies. Content with their destiny, they fed in this place, during the winter, upon the flesh of their beasts, the skins of which also served them for several uses, and in summer lived on milk, meats, and fruits. They called this country Irgana-kon in allusion to its situation: Irgana signifying in the old language of the Mogulls ‘a valley’, and Kon ‘a steep height’.

  • Wherefore having been obliged for certain reasons to remain a whole year in the country of the Calmacks, I have had opportunity to learn the language of the Mogulls; and the reason why I have written this book in the Mogull, or Turkish language, without meddling with the others, is that it may be everywhere in use…[The country of Calmacks is currently known as Republic of Kalmikiya as a part of Russia.-Ed]
  • The tribe of the Kall-atz dwells among the Turcmanns, in the country of Maurenner,[It is known today as Uzbekistan.-Ed] and the province of Chorassan. [Nowadays,  several modern countries are situated at the territory of this Chorassan province – parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan.-Ed]
  • The tribe of the Kipzaks has always inhabited the banks of the rivers Tin, Atell and Jaigik. The tribe of the Kanklis dwelt for some time  jointly with the Turcmanns in the sandy deserts, but when these last went to live in towns, the Kanklis went and dwelt about the rivers Issikul and Tallash ; where they have inhabited a long while.
  • Those of the tribe of Carliks have always inhabited the mountains of the country of the Mogulls, living on the produce of their lands and herds.
  • In the dominions of the Mogulls there are found two chains of very high mountains which extend from the East to the West, of which one is called Tugra Tubujluk, and the other Uskun Luk Tugra. Between these two chains of mountains, towards the West, lies the true country of the Mogulls, and beyond that more westward yet is another mountain which they call Kutt : between these three mountains the Vigurs inhabited heretofore ; and as one finds in this country ten rivers on one side, and nine on the other, one part of the Vigurs, call’d Un-Vigurs, inhabited about the aforesaid ten rivers, and the other part dwelt about the other nine rivers, and these last bore the name of Tokos Vigurs. They got these different names from the number of the rivers about which they inhabited  Un signifying in the Turkish language ‘ten’, and Tokos ‘nine’.
  • These two united people [Un-Vigurs and Tokos Vigurs.-Ed]  lived together in  these mountains almost 2000 years in peace, but in the end a new difference arising among them, they separated for good and all; one separate part of them remaining in those districts, and again. the other going to inhabit about the banks of the river Irtis. These last divided once more into three branches, whereof one went and dwelt in the town of Bishbalik, and subsisted by cultivating the lands thereabout. The second dispersed themselves in the neighborhood of that town, feeding upon their cattle ; and the third branch continued beside the Irtis, living by fishing and hunting of zibelines, castors, martins, squirrels, and such like beasts, of which they eat the flesh, and employed the skins to make them clothes, because they were always accustomed to go clad with nothing but what was made of skins…
  • There are two towns called Camcamzut which are very near one another, between two great rivers ; whereof one is call’d Selanga, and the other Ikar -muran. Besides these, there are also two other towns upon the frontiers of the  Kergis, both of them call’d Aprusir,
  • The tribe of the Tatars is one of the most ancient and famous of the Turkish nations..The principal branch of the Tatars went and dwelt towards the borders of Kitay, in the country of Biurnaver and was brought in subjection to the empire of Kitay[Kitay is another name of China.-Ed].
  • Another branch of the tribe of the Tatars went and settled upon the banks of the river Ikar, or Ikran Muran. This river glides along the frontiers of the Kergis, and having received thereabouts the waters of many other rivers enlarges itself considerably, and at last after a long course falls into the Azoch-Zingis, or ‘bitter sea’. [The Turkic word Azoch⇒Aji / Acı means ‘bitter’, and Zingis⇔ Chingiz / Çingiz means ‘sea’.- Ed]. Near its mouth there is a great town, which commands several small ones thereabouts, call’d Alachzin, that is to say, ‘pied’, because  the Inhabitants of that town have none but pied horses.
  • … the Turks in their ancient language call all great rivers ‘Sai’ ; the Tadjicks call the small rivers ‘Ruth‘ and the great ones ‘Ruth Canna’. The Arabians call the great rivers ‘Uwady’, and the Mogulls name them ‘Muran’. In the country of the Mogulls, there are on the east-slde eight rivers which all fall into the great river Ikar, or lkran Muran, and they call them all by one common name Sekir Muran, or ‘Eight rivers‘, of which these are the names: 1.Kok Muran; 2.On Muran; 3.Cara Ussun; 4.Sebikan; 5.Ikran Muran; 6.Akar Muran; 7.Zagan Muran; 8.Chodsa Muran. About these rivers heretofore dwelt the Virats.
  • The tribe of the Naimanns is very ancient, and very rich; but I am a stranger to their origin and government. The first of their princes that I have come to the know ledge of, was called Karkish Chan who had his son Abjath for his successor after his death. In the reign of Zingis Chan, they were governed by a prince called Taijan Chan, who had a son called Kutshluk ; they dwelt in a country of the Mogulls called Cara Kum, or ‘Black Sand’, and had not the custom of cultivating their lands.
  • Those of Kitay have built a great Wall to cover their country, in which there are two Iron gates for the passage of the merchants and other travellers. This wall is call’d Sat in Arabic which signifies ‘fortress’ ; in the ancient Turkish language it is called Turk-urga, and in the language of KitayUngu‘…Nau-Shirwanadill, sultan of Shamachy, caused in like manner a Wall of Earth to be built round about his Kingdom. [Nowadays, this territory of Shamachy preserved its name and designates both a regional district as well as the city in Azerbaijan Republic.-Ed]
  • The empire of Kitay is divided into two parts: the first is called Cara Kltay…[Cara in Turkic means ‘black’.-Ed] The inhabitants of Cara Kitay having revolted against the emperor of Kitay, a great part of part of them abandon’d their country and retir’d near the Kergis, but the Kergis having pillag’d them,they resolved to go and dwell in the country of Atill, and built there a town, living by cultivating the lands thereabouts.[The Kergis are modern Kirghiz nation. The country of Atill is now a part of Russia covering the shores of river Volga, known previously as Atill.-Ed]
  • …the town of Jalasagan, which is called by the Mogulls Chambalik, or ‘the Good Town’ – Cham importing in the language of the Mogulls ‘Good’, and Balik – ‘a Town’.
  • The tribe of the Dsalagirs is very ancient: they were heretofore scattered over a great extent of country, and had many princes; but thole of Kitay having declared war against them, they were oblig’d to come closer together, to be in a capacity to assist one another. Their families were so numerous, that formerly they spread over seventy different provinces, which  they call’d in their language Kuran, and the greatest part of them dwelt in a quarter of the Mogulls country called Uman…
  • Zingis Chan was born in the country of Blunjulduk in the year 559, which is called Tongus, or the Hog in the Mogull language [The year of 559 is 1163 AD. The word Tongus is of Turkic origin. It has several variations, such as Donuz in Azerbaijani, Domuz in Turkish. -Ed]; he brought into the world with him a piece of coagulated blood in his hand, of which his mother having acquainted his father, he advised with his principal officers about this odd accident; one of whom assured the chan, it was a presage that the new-born prince should subdue many provinces and nations to his empire, which in reality came to pass afterwards. At his birth his father called him Tamuzin, but when he was declared Chan, he took the name of Zingis.
  • Sungun, the son of Aunak Chan hid himself for some time among his own subjects, but observing that they sought after him to take away his life, he retired to the town of Chateen, which was in the hands of a lord of the tribe of Kallatz, called Calizohara; who instead of protecting, put him to death…
  • In the year 599 [AD 1202.-ED[, called by the Mogulls Tongus, or ‘Hog’, Zingis Chan being full forty years old, all the tribes of the Mogulls which had submitted to him, acknowledg’d him  their chan in the country of Naumancura, where he resided at that time, on which occasion he gave his subjects a great feast.
  • Zingis Chan having beaten the Markatts, and reduc’d that tribe under his obedience, chose a great number of men out of them to reinforce his troops, and marched from thence towards the capital of the country of Tangut. Upon the news of this march, the chan of that country, who was a very aged prince, shut himself up in his metropolis, which gave name to the whole country, and resolved to defend himself to the last.
  • Altan Chan finding after the retreat of the Mogulls that all the northern provinces of his empire were ruin’d, left the government of Chanbalik to his son, and went to reside in the city of Namkin, which his father had very strongly fortify’d.
  • It is to be observed here, that the word Buchar signifies, in the Mogull language ‘a learned man’, because all those who have a mind to be instructed in the languages and sciences go to Bucharia.[The name of the same city Bucharia has been preserved with a slight change- Bukhara, which is situated in the country of Uzbekistan. The word Bukhara consists of two Turkic words Bukh ‘knowledge’ + Ar ‘a man’.-Ed]
  • Zingis Chan detached a great body of horse in pursuit of them, which overtaking them on the banks of the river Amu, cut them almost all to pieces. [The river Amu, known also as Amu Darya, and Oxus is a major river in Central Asia.-Ed]
  • …from thence he went and besieged Barmian  which defended itself with much obstinacy. Among several other persons of distinction, who were killed at this siege, there having been a son of Zagatai’s, whom Zingis Chan lov’d much, it threw him into such a rage that he instantly order’d a general assault to be given to the town; and having taken it by that means, he caus’d them all to be slain without excepting one person, and afterwards raz’d it to the ground; ordering the place where that town was situated for the time to be called Maubalik which in the Mogull language signifies ‘an unlucky town’.
  • After the reduction of Ilan, Zena Noyan and Suday Bayadur marched towards the provinces of Aran and Adirbeindsan [Currently known as Azerbaijan. -Ed] and having reduced all the towns in those parts under the obedience of Zingis Chan, they turned at length towards the city of Shamakie [This city of Shamakhi is located in Azerbaijan Republic.-Ed] , and that place having been obliged to surrender after some resistance, they treated the Inhabitants with much rigor to punish them for their rashness.
  • It was in the spring of the year 620 [1223 AD.-Ed], when Zingis Chan let forward in his march towards the country of Turan after he had placed good garisons,and commanders of approv’d fidelity, in all the cities of defense, which were upon the entrances into the country of Iran.
  • In the mean time it came to pass that the inhabitants of the cities of Cashgar and Jerkeen, of the countries of Alatach and the Vigurs, finding none of the posterity of Zagatai Chan among them, who was capable of filling the throne of their country which was vacant, they found themselves obliged to call in Amul Chodsa, who reigned at that juncture, under the name of Isan Boga Chan in the country of Maurenner.[The country Maurenner was known also as Mawar-al-nahr.-Ed]
  • After his death his brother Malik Ashraf succeeded him in the usurpation of the supreme power… but in regard he led a very scandalous life, many among the most considerable of his subjects, and among others the Chief Justice, went to Dzanibek Chan, who reigned in the country of Dasht Kipzak [The land of Kipchaks.-Ed], and complained so movingly to him of the shameful actions of Malik Ashraf that he thought himself obliged in conscience to march against him with an army. Malik Ashraf advancing to meet him with another army almost equal to his, they came to a battle in the country of Adirbeindsan near the city of Chui [The city Chui, currently known as Choi is located in the Southern Azerbaijan, which the author spelled as Adirbeindsan.-Ed], and Malik Ashraf having been defeated and killed upon that occasion, Dzanibek Chan seized all the provinces which had been under his subjection, This happened in the year 756.[1355 AD.-Ed]
  • This expedition had the success which every one knows, and Batu-sagin Chan after he had filled all the West with the glory of the great exploits which he achieved upon that occasion, at length return’d happily into his own country of Dasht Kipzak, where he died some time after in the capital of the country called Coc-orda.
  • Argun Chan having got intelligence of the march of the troops of Mengu Timur Chan, immediately order’d a good body of the army to advance and meet the two generals, under the command of one of his best officers called Amir Tegatur, and he followed in person with all his forces. These two armies coming to an engagement in a place called Carabach, the army of Mengu Timur Chan was defeated, which afflicted him so much that he died soon after. [Carabach, or Karabakh↔Qarabağ  is  the territory of Azerbaijan Republic which was occupied by Armenia with help of Russia in the 90-s of the XX c. The word itself is of Turkic origin, meaning Cara/Kara/Qara ‘black’ and Bach/Bakh/Bağ ‘vineyard’.-Ed]
  • ‘Tis from the posterity of this last that Kutzium Chan, who was the last of the descendants of Sheybani Chan, who reigned in the country of Turan (Tura) deriv’d his origin. He became blind in his old age, after having reigned forty years in that country, and the Urusses having at that time invaded his dominions, constrained him in the year 1003 [1594 AD.-Ed] to save himself by flight, and since that time the greatest part of the country of Turan (Tura) has been possessed by the Urusses.
  • Saphian Sultan, eldest son of Amunak, succeeded Hasanculi Chan in the dignity of Chan of the country of Charass’m; but the Confederate princes agreed among themselves about a new division of the towns of the Country; and by virtue of that convention,the descendants of Burga Sultan had for their share the towns of Vasir, Jangishar, Tarsak, and Duruhn with the Turkmanns of Mankishlak ; and the descendants of Amunak had all the other towns of the country of Charass’m, viz. Urgens, Chajuk, Hassarassap,Kaht, Buldumsass, Nikitzkata, Bojunda, Bagabat, Nasai, Iburdu, Zaharda, and Mahana, with the Turkmanns which inhabited the countries of Abulchan and Dehistan.
  • You must know that the river Amu after it has pass’d by Urgens, takes its course towards the  West and the mountain of Abulchan; and from thence wheeling about that mountain it runs Southward; then returning to the West, it passes thro* the country of Ogurza, and falls into the sea of Masanderan. There were at that time habitations in abundance upon both sides of that river, from the town of Urgens, as far as as the country of Ogurza; by reason of the soil being exceedingly fertile, all sorts of fruits and roots grew there in perfection. The Turkmanns who possessed those quarters went to encamp in summer in the neighbouring valleys, where they knew they should have water for their cattle, and in winter they return’d to their habitations on the banks of the river.
  • In the meantime, Din Mohamet Sultan having learned in his march that the enemy had in  the night-time pass’d by Hassarassap, and that they would be upon his back the next day, he advanced in the evening as far as a pond, which was dry’d up, in the country of Gardanchast, where he made his army halt, resolving to wait for the enemy ; and since that battle they have given the name of Shikast Koli to this pond. [The Turkic words Shikast Koli ↔ Şikəst Göli has the meaning ‘The Lake of Defeat’: Shikast↔ Şikəst ‘defeat’ + Koli ↔ Göli ‘a lake’.-Ed]
  • From thence they travers’d the territory of Manklshlak, which was at that time quite desert; since the Turkmanns of Mankishlak had been obliged all to retire into the country of Ordacutuk, which borders upon the country of Gordish  because of the great quarrels which they had on one side with the Mankatts, and on the other side with the Turkmanns of the tribe of Irsari. [The name of the territory Mankishlak ↔ Manqışlağ has Turkic origin and is based on two words : Man ‘grand, rich’ + Kishlak/Qışlağ ‘wintering’, meaning ‘an abundant place to stay throughout the winter’. -Ed]
  • …all the Usbecks who dwelt between the countries of Darugan and Bakirgan had joined with the princes…
  • …all the people who dwelt from the small town of Modekan to this side of Bakirgan, and as far as the country of Kuigan sowed nothing but wheat…
  • Shariph Mohamet Sultan and the Usbecks… set forward towards Chajuk, and after two days march they came in the evening to the bridge of Tash-kupruk, in the country of Chika, where they halted the space of forty days…
  • …the Turkmanns…dwelt about the mountain of Abulchan and at Mankishlak
  • Some time after, a comet having appear’d in the sky, the common people were persuaded, considering the extraordinary animositywhich reigned among their princes, it could not but portend great calamaties to them ; and in  that persuasion they went by troops, which they called Top, Top, some into Great Bucharia and others into the country of Turkestan
  • …went on occasion to Great Bucharia ; but Abulgasi Sultan retir’d towards Casatshia Orda, and went to visit Ishim Chan at Turkestan, where he stayed three months.. [Casatshia Orda, known in Russian as Казачья Орда , is a combination of two Turkic words – Casak↔Kazak “the name of the Turkic tribe” and Orda “an army”. -Ed]
  • Some time after Isphandiar Chan caused the throats of eight hundred of the principal Usbecks, with their wives and children, to be cut the town of Kaht, who came from Great Bucharia with design to settle in the country of Arall; and taking this occasion to invite his two brothers to court, under pretence of regulating with them what related to the Affairs of the Usbecks, he persuaded his brother Shariph Mahamet Sultan to repair to the country of Arall among the Usbecks…[The Turkic name of the country Arall means ‘the middle’.-Ed]
  • …an old man of seventy, with a long grey beard, who happened to be among the crowd, began to suspect something upon Abulgast Sultan‘s asking the Sagit, at whose house they had lighted, which was the direct road to the village of Magi, which was known to none thereabouts but to the Inhabitants of that village [Boiish] only ; for leaving Bastam, one may take two different roads, viz, the common high road, and a short road, which striking directly through the mountains, joins the great road two days journey from thence. [The ancient name of the village Magi traces back thousand years to the ancient inhabitants of that land – the Magis, mentioned by Herodotus, who were very advanced in occultism and sorcery,and modern words Magician, Magic were derived from the name of this ancient nation, presumably of Turkic origin.-Ed].
  • At his arrival in the country of Tarchan, the greatest part of them fled to the country of Bamaburinak; and the rest having been put to the sword, he returned to Chajuk.
  • …fifteen days after their departure he set out in pursuit of them, and coming up with their rear on the frontiers of the country of Juguruk-bash, he defeated them entirely.
  • Abulgasi Chan continuing still to press upon them, at length overtook Ochzutaba and Togull, two of the Callmak lords in the country of Segeri-rabat, where they were so well intrenched, that it was impossible to force them…
  • After these several expeditions, Abulgasi  Chan design’d to pass the rest of his days in repose, and to regulate the affairs within his dominions, when Subhan Culi Chan of Balk sent an ambassador to represent to him that having neither father nor brother, he had recourse to him, who was to him in place of father and brother, in the streights to which he saw himself reduced by Abdulasis Chan of Great Bucharia who had taken the field in order to deprive him of the city of Balk…[The Turkic name Balk means ‘a city”. This word is a part of the name of the Balkars, a Turkic nation residing currently in the KabardinoBalkar Republic, the part of Russian Federation. The Turkic word Balkar has two components: Balk “a city” and Ar ” a man”, meaning ‘a city dweller’-Ed]
  • Abulgasi Chan …detach’d one of his officers called Bik Aly Inak, with a body of ten thousand choice men towards the town of Carakul, which belongs to Great Bucharia, and went himself in person to take the town of Suintzbala, which he caused to be entirely ruin’d, with thirty or forty villages in the neighborhood of that town; after which he return’d into the country of Kogertlik