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Diwan Lugat at-Turk – Compendium of the Turkic Dialects. By Mahmud al Kashgari. XI c. Translated by R.Dankoff and J.Kelly.1982

 

  • Ögüz – ‘any flowing river’, such as the Jayhun or the Euphrates. When this word is used in a specific sense among the Oquz, it applies to a river called Wadi Banakat: their cities are along it, and those among them who are nomadic camp along its banks. This word is used in the names of many rivers in the lands of the Turks; also of a frontier town called Eki Ögüz – it is a town between two rivers: ila and Yawinç.
  • Aluş [Alush -Ed.] – name of the village belonging to Kaçğar. [Kachgar – Ed.]
  • Uluş -‘a village’ in Chigil dialect. Among the people of Balasaqun and the neighboring Arqu country, ‘a city’. Hence the city of Balasaqun is called Quz Uluş.
  • Adiğ – the name of one of our villages.
  • Aruq Turuq – name of a mountain pass between Farqana and Kashgar.
  • Abul – name of one of our villages. [ in Kashgar. -Ed].
  • Ətil – name of a river in the country of Qifchaq which flows into the Bulqar Sea; it has an arm which flows over Rus. [Ətil, or Atil, othewise known as the Volga river. -Ed].
  • Udun – name of the city of Khotan. The inhabitants of Khotan are also called Udun.
  • Qizil ez – a winter pasture in the Kashgar mountains.
  • Aq Say – name of the place….Aq -‘white of anything’. Oguz dialect.
  • Aq Terək – name of a ford of the Ila river in Yagma[The name of the river Terək/Terek is still preserved up until nowadays.The Terek river is a major river in the Northern Caucasus that flows through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea.- Ed]
  • Ala – name of a summer pasture near Farqana.
  • Ala Yiğaç – name of the place on the frontier.
  • Udu Kənd – udu ‘mound’… from this, a city in Argu is called Udu Kənd[Kənd – ‘a town; a village. Thus, Udu Kənd means  ‘a town on the mound’.-Ed]
  • Ögə -the title of a man of the common people who is intelligent, mature, and experienced in affairs. He is one degree below the Tegin. The origin of this is that when Du-l Qarnayn [or Zulqarnayn -‘the two-horned’ in Arabic , also known as Alexander the Great, a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon – Ed.] arrived in Shin the king of the Turks sent toward him a detachment made up completely of young men in order to engage him in a battle. the vizier said to him: “You have sent young men against him, but there ought to be with them some mature man, advanced in years, experienced in war.” He said: “Ögə, meaning ‘a mature man’?” and he answered, “Yes”. So he sent a mature man. They attacked the vanguard of Du-l Qarnayn and routed them. One of the Turks struck one of the soldiers of Du-l Qarnayn and cut him near the navel. The one thus killed had tied a purse of dinars round his middle, and now the purse split open and the dinars came pouring out, mixed with blood. In the morning the detachment of the Turks saw the dinars mixed with blood and wondered what it was. Someone said:” ‘Altun Qan‘, meaning ‘ gold and blood’ – and a great mountain that was there was given this name. It is a mountain surrounded by nomads, near UighurDu-l Qarnayn made peace with him after that.
  • Ila – name of a river. [Currently known as the Ili River, it is situated  in northwestern China and southeastern Kazakhstan.- Ed]. On its banks camp two tribes of the Turks, namely Yagma and Tuxsi, and a group of Chigil. It is the “Jayhun” of the Turk country.
  • Artuç – juniper. In Kashgar there are two villages named Artuç.
  • Ədğiş – name of the place.
  • Ədgiş – a tribe of the Turks who have settled in Özgənd. Its root-form is the metathesis of this: Əgdiş.
  • Ərtiş – name of the river in the steppes of Yemək which flows into lake there and which has many arms and tributaires. It is called Ərtiş Suwi.  It is derived from the word Ərtiş meaning ‘compete with me in crossing /to determine/ which of us is stronger in crossing it’. [Ərtiş , known as the Irtysh river – Иртыш by Russians, the Ertix river –  额尔齐斯河 by Chinese is a river in Siberian region of RussiaChina, and Kazakhstan.- Ed.]
  • Utluq – name of a city near TarazUtluq means ‘stable’ in their dialect.
  • Alğuq – name of a village belonging to Kashgar.
  • Uyğur – the name of a principality composed of five cities, which Du-l Qarnayn built when he made peace with the king of the Turks. [Currently, this land of Uighurs is called Xinjiang and is a province of China.-Ed.] I was told by Nizam ad-Din Israfil Toğan Tegin, son of Muhammad Çaqir Tonqa Khan, on the autority of his father, who said:”When Du-l Qarnayn arrived in the vicinity of the principality of Uighur , the Khaqan of the Turks sent toward him four thousand men. The wings of their caps were like the wings of falcons, and they could shoot backward and forward equally. Du-l Qarnayn was astonished at them and said: ‘Inan Xud Xurand’ [In English transliteration, ‘Inan Khud Khurand’ – Ed.], meaning “These are independent in feeding themselves” – they have no need of anyone’s food since game never escapes them but they eat it whenever they wish. Therefore, the principality was named Xudxur [Khudkhur -Ed.] Afterward, the {first} xa was changed to alif. This is the case with gutteral letters; they alternate with one another, especially xa with alif and alif with xa. Concerning Uighur : when they changed xa to alif, they made the dal in xud into a ya  – this is an important rule, namely that dal may be made ya. Then they made the xa in xur into a ğayn – the alternation of xa with ğayn and ğayn with xa is permitted {in Arabic} as in xatara ~ ğadara. [Xudxur ↔ Khudkhur ⇒  xud↔khud → x↔kh → u , d → y↔i , and xur↔khur → ğur↔qhur. Thus, the initial word Xudxur ↔ Khudkhur  turned into Uiqhur. -Ed]. This principality consists of five cities whose people are the strongest of the infidels and the best shooters. They are: Sulmi which Du-l Qarnayn built; then Qoço; then Janbaliq; then; Beş Baliq; then Yani Baliq.
  • Oğraq – a tribe of the Turks inhabiting a frontier district called Qara Yiğaç.
  • Ordu – ‘residence of a king’. Thus, the city of Kaşğar is called Ordu Kənd, meaning ‘City of Residence of Kings.  Ordu – a residence near Balasağun. Balasağun is also called Quz Ordu from this word.
  • Arğu – ‘ravine between two mountains’. From this the country between Tiraz and Balasağun was named Arğu, since it is between two mountains.
  • Usmi Tarim – name of a large river which flows from the land of Islam toward Uighur and there is absorbed in the sand.
  • Orang – name of a place near Rum[Rome – Ed.] It is toward north, over against Rum. The more correct form is Varang.
  • Aşican – name of a city on the stages of the journery to Sin. [Aşican is Ashijan in English transliteration. Sin means China.-Ed]
  • Ötükən – name of a place in the deserts of Tatar near Uighur.
  • Aramut – name of a place,…a tribe of the Turks near Uighur.
  • Adğiraq Suwi – name of the river in YağmaAdğiraq – a white-footed mountain goat.